Oocyte Treatment and Preparation for Microinjection

  • Thomas EbnerEmail author


ICSI is the only technology in IVF labs that requires manipulation of both female and male gametes. Optimal outcome is only guaranteed if culture conditions and time management is optimized. This chapter not only evaluates the critical major steps of the in vitro process, such as scoring the cumulus-oocyte complexes, denudation of the oocytes, processing the spermatozoa, and ICSI, but also deals with pitfalls (presence of immotile sperm or failed fertilization) and approaches how to avoid these (artificial oocyte activation, artificial restoration of sperm motility). In addition, modified ICSI techniques are presented that allow for a better outcome in selected cases.


Artificial activation Cumulus-oocyte complex Gamete selection ICSI Oocyte Spermatozoa 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kepler University, Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics, and Gynecological EndocrinologyLinzAustria

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