Skip to main content

Infant and Early Childhood Mortality in a Context of Transitional Fertility: Geneva 1800–1900

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
New Approaches to Death in Cities during the Health Transition

Part of the book series: International Studies in Population ((ISIP,volume 12))

  • 272 Accesses

Abstract

In this chapter, I analyze the impact of reproductive behaviour on levels of infant and child mortality, as well as on the strength of child death clustering among families in nineteenth century Geneva. To do so, I first study the association between fertility behaviour and child mortality from a top-down perspective combining survival and sequence analysis. In a second step, I analyze the relationship from a bottom-up point of view using hazard modelling. The sequence analysis of birth spacing does not show any substantial differences between families of high child mortality risks on the one hand and families of low risks for child mortality on the other hand. The hazard models show a substantial level of family-level clustering of infant deaths and give evidence for the association between rhythm of childbearing and previous experience of infant mortality at the family-level, and the survival chances of a given infant. At least in nineteenth century Geneva, family-level frailty in child mortality however does not seem to depend on birth spacing.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 34.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 44.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 54.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Alter, G., Oris, M., & Broström, G. (2001). The family and mortality: A case study from rural Belgium. Annales de démographie historique, 1, 11–31.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brändström, A. (1988). The impact of female labour conditions on infant mortality: A case study of the parishes of Nedertornea and Jokkmokk, 1800–96. Social History of Medicine, 1, 329–358.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Browne, W. J. (2009). MCMC estimation in MLwiN. Bristol: Centre for Multilevel Modelling.

    Google Scholar 

  • Das Gupta, M. (1990). Death clustering, mothers’ education and the determinants of child mortality in rural Punjab, India. Population Studies, 44, 489–505.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Edvinsson, S., Brändström, A., Rogers, J., & Broström, G. (2005). High-risk families: The unequal distribution of infant mortality in nineteenth-century Sweden. Population Studies, 59, 321–337.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gabadinho, A., Ritschard, G., Müller, N. S., & Studer, M. (2011). Analyzing and visualizing state sequences in R with TraMineR. Journal of Statistical Software, 40, 1–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Guo, G. (1993). Use of sibling data to estimate family mortality effects in Guatemala. Demography, 30, 15–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knodel, J. (1968). Infant mortality and fertility in three Bavarian villages: An analysis of family histories from the 19th century. Population Studies, 22, 297–318.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knodel, J. (1982). Child mortality and reproductive behaviour in German village populations in the past: A micro-level analysis of the replacement effect. Population Studies, 36, 177–200.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knodel, J. (1988). Demographic behavior in the past. A study of fourteen German village populations in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Knodel, J., & Hermalin, A. I. (1984). Effects of birth rank, maternal age, birth interval and sibship size on infant and child mortality: Evidence from 18th and 19th century reproductive histories. American Journal of Public Health, 74, 1098–1106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Knodel, J., & van de Walle, E. (1979). Lessons from the past: Policy implications of historical fertility studies. Population and Development Review, 5, 217–245.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Legrand, T., & Sandberg, J. (2006). Effects of child mortality on fertility: Theoretical complexities and measurement difficulties. In Entre nature et culture: Quelle(s) démographie(s)? Chaire Quetelet 2002 (pp. 181–205). Louvain-la-Neuve: Academia-Bruylant.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lynch, K. A., & Greenhouse, J. B. (1994). Risk factors for infant mortality in nineteenth-century Sweden. Population Studies, 48, 117–133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mills, M. (2011). Introducing survival and event history analysis. London: Sage.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Nault, F., Desjardins, B., & Légaré, J. (1990). Effects of reproductive behaviour on infant mortality of French-Canadians during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Population Studies, 44, 273–285.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oris, M., Derosas, R., & Breschi, M. (2004). Infant and child mortality. In T. Bengtsson, C. Campbell, J. Lee, et al. (Eds.), Life under pressure: Mortality and living standards in Europe and Asia, 1700–1900 (pp. 359–398). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pebley, A. R., & Stupp, P. W. (1987). Reproductive patterns and child mortality in Guatemala. Demography, 24, 43–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perrenoud, A. (1975). L’inégalité sociale devant la mort à Genève au XVIIe siècle. Population, 30, 221–243.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Perrenoud, A. (1979). La population de Genève du seizième au début du dix-neuvième siècle. Etude démographique. Genève: Société d’histoire et d’archéologie de Genève.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perrenoud, A. (1988). Espacement et arrêt dans le contrôle des naissances. Annales de démographie historique, 1, 59–78.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perrenoud, A. (1998). Le recul de la mortalité ordinaire’. In J. P. Bardet & J. Dupâquier (Eds.), Histoire des populations de l’Europe (Vol. 2, pp. 57–82). Paris: Fayard.

    Google Scholar 

  • Preston, S. H. (1978). Introduction. In S. H. Preston (Ed.), The effects of infant and child mortality on fertility (pp. 1–18). New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rabe-Hesketh, S., & Skrondal, A. (2008). Multilevel and longitudinal modeling using Stata. College Station: Stata Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rollet, C. (1997). Childhood mortality in high-risk groups: Some methodological reflections based on French experience. In C. A. Corsini & P. P. Viazzo (Eds.), The decline of infant and child mortality: The european experience, 1750–1990 (pp. 213–225). The Hague: Kluwer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sastry, N. (1997). Family-level clustering of childhood mortality risk in Northeast Brazil. Population Studies, 51, 245–261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schumacher, R. (2010). Structures et comportements en transition. La reproduction démographique à Genève au 19e siècle (Population, famille et société, Vol. 12). Berne: Peter Lang.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Scrimshaw, S. C. M. (1978). Infant mortality and behavior in the regulation of family size. Population and Development Review, 4, 383–403.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Studer, M., Ritschard, G., Gabadinho, A., & Müller, N. S. (2011). Discrepancy analysis of state sequences. Sociological Methods & Research, 40, 471–510.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van de Walle, F. (1986). Infant mortality and the European demographic transition. In A. J. Coale & S. C. Watkins (Eds.), The decline of fertility in Europe (pp. 201–233). Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vandezande, M., Moreels, S., & Matthijs, K. (2010). Explaining death clustering. intergenerational patterns in infant mortality. Antwerp, 1846–1905. Working paper 13 of the WOG Historical Demography.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Reto Schumacher .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Schumacher, R. (2016). Infant and Early Childhood Mortality in a Context of Transitional Fertility: Geneva 1800–1900. In: Ramiro Fariñas, D., Oris, M. (eds) New Approaches to Death in Cities during the Health Transition. International Studies in Population, vol 12. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43002-7_6

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43002-7_6

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-43001-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-43002-7

  • eBook Packages: Social SciencesSocial Sciences (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics