Rural Parenting: Cumulative Risk and Parenting Process



In this chapter, we describe the Family Life Project, a large-scale longitudinal study that chronicles the lives of African American and non-African American children and their families living in two poor rural areas of the US: Appalachia and the Black South. The breadth of the Family Life Project data allows us to expand the previous literature on rural poverty and to highlight the notion that the effects of poverty are not limited to low levels of income, but are rather fused with several “correlated constraints” that co-occur with poverty: low maternal education, low job prestige, non-standard work hours, single parenthood, residential instability, and neighborhood safety. We use a cumulative risk perspective as a comprehensive way to describe the life in rural poverty and the disproportionate burden it puts on rural families as they navigate day-to-day life. We also look at two examples of parenting—the quality of mothers and fathers language input and the quality of mothers and fathers emotion talk—as we examine (1) parenting as a mediating link in the relation between cumulative risk and children’s literacy skills, and (2) the role of fathers in the process of child development.


Parenting Poverty Rural families Child development Cumulative risk Low income 


  1. Arnott, B., & Meins, E. (2007). Links among antenatal attachment representations, postnatal mind-mindedness, and infant attachment security: A preliminary study of mothers and fathers. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 71(2), 132–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, C. E., & Vernon-Feagans, L. (2015). Fathers’ language input during shared book activities: Links to children’s kindergarten achievement. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 3653–3659. doi: 10.1016/j.appdev.2014.11.009
  3. Bornstein, M. H., Haynes, M. O., & Painter, K. M. (1998). Sources of child vocabulary competence: A multivariate model. Journal of Child Language, 25, 367–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bratsch, M. (2008). Rural African American families’ child care placement: Examined through child age, economic, education, social support, and geographic isolation measures. M.A. dissertation. Retrieved June 25, 2010, from Dissertations & Theses @ University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (Publication No. AAT 1454477).Google Scholar
  5. Brody, G. H., Chen, Y., & Kogan, S. M. (2010). A cascade model connecting life stress to risk behavior among rural African American emerging adults. Development and Psychopathology, 22(3), 667–678. doi: 10.1017/S0954579410000350 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brody, G. H., & Flor, D. (1998). Maternal resources, parenting practices, and child competence in rural, single-parent African-American families. Child Development, 69, 803–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bronfenbrenner, U., & Evans, G. W. (2000). Developmental science in the 21st century: Emerging questions, theoretical models, research designs and empirical findings. Social Development, 9(1), 115–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burchinal, M. R., Roberts, J. E., Hooper, S., & Zeisel, S. A. (2000). Cumulative risk and early cognitive development: A comparison of statistical risk models. Developmental Psychology, 36, 793–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burchinal, M. R., Roberts, J. E., Zeisel, S. A., Hennon, E. A., & Hooper, S. (2006). Risk and resiliency: Protective factors in early elementary school years. Parenting: Science and Practice, 6, 79–113. doi: 10.1207/s15327922par0601_4
  10. Burchinal, P, Vernon-Feagans, L. & Cox, M. & The Family Life Project Investigators (2008). Cumulative social risk, parenting, and infant development in rural low-income communities. Parenting: Science and Practice, 8(1), 41–69.Google Scholar
  11. Cabrera, N. J., & Bradley, R. H. (2012). Latino fathers and their children. Child Development Perspectives, 6(3), 232–238. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2012.00249.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cabrera, N. J., Hofferth, S. L., & Hancock, G. (2014). Family structure, maternal employment, and change in children’s externalizing problem behaviour: Differences by age and self-regulation. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11(2), 136–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cairns, R. B., Cairns, B. D., Rodkin, P., & Xie, H. (1998). New directions in developmental research: Models and methods. In R. Jessor & R. Jessor (Eds.), New perspectives on adolescent risk behavior (pp. 13–40). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511571138.003
  14. Carnevale, A. P., Smith, N., & Strohl, J. (2010). Help wanted: Projections of job and education requirements through 2018. Lumina Foundation.Google Scholar
  15. Castro, V. L., Halberstadt, A. G., & Garrett-Peters, P. (2015). A three-factor structure of emotion understanding in middle childhood. Social development (Manuscript submitted for publication).Google Scholar
  16. Coley, R. L., & Chase-Lansdale, P. L. (1999). Stability and change in paternal involvement among urban African American fathers. Journal of Family Psychology, 13(3), 416–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Coll, C. G., Lamberty, G., Jenkins, R., McAdoo, H. P., Crnic, K., Wasik, B. H., et al. (1998). An integrative model for the study of developmental competencies in minority children. In M. E. Hertzig, E. A. Farber, M. E. Hertzig, & E. A. Farber (Eds.), Annual progress in child psychiatry and child development: 1997 (pp. 437–463). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  18. Conger, R. D. (2013). Rural children at risk. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78(5), 127–138. doi: 10.1111/mono.12055 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Conger, R. D., Elder, G. J., Lorenz, F. O., Simons, R. L., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1994). Families in troubled times: Adapting to change in rural America. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  20. Crouter, A. C., Bumpus, M., Head, M., & McHale, S. M. (2001). Implications of overwork and overload for the quality of men’s family relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 404–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crouter, A. C., & McHale, S. M. (2005). Work, family, and children’s time: Implications for youth. Work, family, health, and well-being (pp. 49–66).Google Scholar
  22. Denham, S. A., Caverly, S., Schmidt, M., Blair, K., De Mulder, E., & Caal, S. (2002). Preschool understanding of emotions: Contributions to classroom anger and aggression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43(7), 901–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Denham, S. A., Zoller, D., & Couchoud, E. A. (1994). Socialization of preschoolers’ emotion understanding. Developmental Psychology, 30(6), 928–936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dill, B. T. (1999). Poverty in the rural U.S.: Implications for children, families, and communities. Literature review prepared for The Annie E. Casey Foundation.Google Scholar
  25. Duncan, C. M. (1999). Worlds apart: Why poverty persists in rural America. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Duncan, G., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  27. Duncan, G. J., & Murnane, R. J. (Eds.). (2011). Whither opportunity? Rising inequality, schools, and children’s life chances. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  28. Dunn, J., Bretherton, I., & Munn, P. (1987). Conversations about feeling states between mothers and their young children. Developmental Psychology, 23(1), 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dunn, J., Brown, J., & Beardsall, L. (1991). Family talk about feeling states and children’s later understanding of others’ emotions. Developmental Psychology, 27(3), 448–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Enchautegui, M. E. (2013). Nonstandard work schedules and well-being of low income families (Paper# 26). Washington, DC: Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  31. Ensor, R., & Hughes, C. (2005). More than talk: Relations between emotion understanding and positive behaviour in toddlers. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 23(3), 343–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ensor, R., & Hughes, C. (2007). Executive function and theory of mind: Predictive relations from ages 2 to 4. Developmental Psychology, 43(6), 1447–1459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fabes, R., Eisenberg, N., Hanish, L., & Spinrad, T. (2001). Preschoolers’ spontaneous emotion vocabulary: Links to likability. Early Education and Development, 12(1), 11–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Feagans, L. V., & Farran, D. C. (1994). The effects of daycare intervention in the preschool years on the narrative skills of poverty children in kindergarten. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 17, 503–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Friedman, P. (2003). Meeting the challenge of social service delivery in rural areas. The Finance Project, 7(2), Welfare Information Network. Retrieved from
  36. Garmezy, N., & Rutter, M. (1988). Stress, coping, and development in children (Johns Hopkins paperbacks ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Garrett-Peters, P., Castro, V., & Halberstadt, A. (2015). Parents’ emotion related beliefs, children’s emotion knowledge, and social competence in school. Poster presented at the meeting for the Society for Research in Child Development, Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  38. Garrett-Peters, P., Mills-Koonce, R., Adkins, D., Vernon-Feagans, L., Cox, M., & The Family Life Project Key Investigators (2008). Early environmental correlates of maternal emotion talk. Parenting: Science and Practice, 8(2), 117–152.Google Scholar
  39. Garrett-Peters, P., Mills-Koonce, R., Zerwas, S., Cox, M., & Vernon-Feagans, L. (2011). Fathers’ early emotion talk: Associations with income, ethnicity, and family factors. Journal of Marriage and Family, 73(2), 335–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Garrett-Peters, P.T., Zerwas, S., Bratsch, M., Vernon-Feagans, L., & The Family Life Project Key Investigators (2009). Early mental state language of rural mothers and fathers living in poverty: Child, parent, and family factors. In L. M. Armstrong & C. H. Hughes (Eds.), Steps in a scaffold: From child communicative skills and parent-child talk to children’s socio-emotional understanding. Symposium conducted at the meeting for the Society for Research in Child Development, Denver, CO.Google Scholar
  41. Gibson-Davis, C. M., & Grassman-Pines, A. (2010). Early childhood family structure and mother-child interactions: Variation by race & ethnicity. Developmental Psychology, 46(1), 151–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goodman, J. C., Dale, P. S., & Li, P. (2008). Does frequency count? Parental input and the acquisition of vocabulary. Journal of child language, 35(3), 515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Graefe, D. R., & Lichter, D. T. (2002). Marriage among unwed mothers: Whites, Blacks and Hispanics compared. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 34, 286–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Haggerty, R., Sherrod, L., Garmezy, N., & Rutter, M. (1996). Stress, risk, and resilience in children and adolescents: Processes, mechanisms, and interventions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Han, W. (2005). Nonstandard work schedules and child care decisions: Evidence from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19(2), 231–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hanson, T. L., McLanahan, S., & Thomson, E. (1997). Economic resources, parental practices, and children’s well-being. In G. Duncan & J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Consequences of growing up poor (pp. 190–221). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  47. Harris, P. L. (2007). Social cognition. Handbook of child psychology, (Vol. 2, pp. 811–858). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.Google Scholar
  48. Hart, B., & Risley, T. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young American children. Baltimore: Brookes.Google Scholar
  49. Hoff, E. (2003). The specificity of environmental influence: Socioeconomic status affects early vocabulary development via maternal speech. Child Development, 74(5), 1368–1378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hoff, E. (2006). How social contexts support and shape language development. Developmental Review, 26(1), 55–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hoff, E., & Tian, C. (2005). Socioeconomic status and cultural influences on language. Journal of Communication Disorders, 38, 271–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hughes, C., Dunn, J., & White, A. (1998). Trick or Treat?: Uneven understanding of mind and emotion and executive dysfunction in “hard-to-manage” Preschoolers. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39(7), 981–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Huttenlocher, J., Haight, W., Bryk, A., Seltzer, M., & Lyons, T. (1991). Early vocabulary growth: Relation to language input and gender. Developmental Psychology, 27(2), 236–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Huttenlocher, J., Vasilyeva, M., Cymerman, E., & Levine, S. (2002). Language input and syntax. Cognitive Psychology, 45, 337–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jenkins, J. M., Turrell, S. L., Kogushi, Y., Lollis, S., & Ross, H. S. (2003). A longitudinal investigation of the dynamics of mental state talk in families. Child Development, 74(3), 905–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kalil, A., Ryan, R., & Corey, M. (2012). Diverging destinies: Maternal education and the developmental gradient in time with children. Demography, 49(4), 1361–1383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. King, V. (1994). Nonresident father involvement and child well-being. Journal of Family Issues, 15, 78–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kohn, M. L., & Schooler, C. (1978). The reciprocal effects of the substantive complexity of work and intellectual flexibility: A longitudinal assessment. American Journal of Sociology, 24–52.Google Scholar
  59. LaBounty, J., Wellman, H. M., Olson, S., Lagattuta, K., & Liu, D. (2008). Mothers’ and fathers’ use of internal state talk with their young children. Social Development, 17(4), 757–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lennon, M. (1994). Women, work, and well-being. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 235–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lichter, D., & Jensen, L. (2001). Poverty and welfare among rural female-headed families: Before and after PRWORA. Rural America, 16(3), 28–35.Google Scholar
  62. Lichter, D. T., Roscigno, V., & Condron, D. (2003). Rural children and youth at risk. In D. Brown & L. E. Swanson (Eds.), Challenges for rural America in the twenty-first century (pp. 97–108). University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Malatesta, C. Z., & Haviland, J. M. (1982). Learning display rules: The socialization of emotion expression in infancy. Child Development, 53(4), 991–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Martin, R. M., & Green, J. A. (2005). The use of emotion explanations by mothers: Relation to preschoolers’ gender and understanding of emotions. Social Development, 14, 229–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mather, M., & Scopilliti, M. (2004). Multiple jobholding rates higher in rural America. Population Reference Bureau, September. Available online at
  66. Mattingly, M. J., Johnson, K. M., & Schaefer, A. (2011). More poor kids in more poor places: Children increasingly live where poverty persists. Carsey Institute Issue Brief, 38, 1–8. Durham, NH: University of New Hampshire.Google Scholar
  67. McLoyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McLoyd, V. C. (1998). Socioeconomic disadvantage and child development. American Psychologist, 53, 185–204. doi: 10.1177/02711214040240040401 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Wainwright, R., Clark-Carter, D., Gupta, M. D., Fradley, E., et al. (2003). Pathways to understanding mind: Construct validity and predictive validity of maternal mind-mindedness. Child Development, 74(4), 1194–1211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Meins, E., Fernyhough, C., Wainwright, R., Gupta, M. D., Fradley, E., & Tuckey, M. (2002). Maternal mind-mindedness and attachment security as predictors of theory of mind understanding. Child Development, 73(6), 1715–1726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Menaghan, E. G., & Parcel, T. L. (1991). Determining children’s home environments: The impact of maternal characteristics and current occupational and family conditions. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 417–431.Google Scholar
  72. Murry, V. M., & Brody, G. H. (1999). Self-regulation and self-worth of black children reared in economically stressed, rural, single mother-headed families the contribution of risk and protective factors. Journal of Family Issues, 20(4), 458–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Murry, V. M., Brody, G. H., McNair, L. D., Luo, Z., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., et al. (2005). Parental involvement promotes rural African American youths’ self-pride and sexual self-concepts. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67(3), 627–642. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2005.00158.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Murry, V. M., Harrell, A. W., Brody, G. H., Chen, Y., Simons, R. L., Black, A. R., et al. (2008). Long-term effects of stressors on relationship well-being and parenting among rural African American women. Family Relations: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 57(2), 117–127. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3729.2008.00488.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Neuman, S. B. (1997). Guiding young children’s participation in early literacy development: A family literacy program for adolescent mothers. Early Child Development and Care, 127(128), 119–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ninio, A. (1983). Joint book reading as a multiple vocabulary acquisition device. Developmental Psychology, 19(3), 445–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. O’Hare, W. P., & Johnson, K. M. (2004). Child poverty in rural America. Population Reference Bureau. Reports on America, 4(1), 1–19.Google Scholar
  78. Odom, E. C., Garrett-Peters, P., Vernon-Feagans, L., & The Family Life Project Investigators. (2014). Racial discrimination as a correlate of African American mothers’ emotion talk to young children. Journal of Family Issues, 1–27. doi: 10.1177/0192513X14521196
  79. Odom, E. C., Vernon-Feagans, L., Crouter, A. C., & Family Life Key Investigators. (2013). Nonstandard maternal work schedules: Implications for African American children’s early language outcomes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28(2), 379–387. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2012.10.001
  80. O’Hare, W. P. (2009). The forgotten fifth: Child poverty in rural. Carsey Institute, 1–24. Report. Retrieved from
  81. Pan, B. A., Rowe, M. L., Singer, J. D., & Snow, C. E. (2005). Maternal correlates of growth in toddler vocabulary production in low-income families. Child Development, 76, 763–782.Google Scholar
  82. Pancsofar, N., & Vernon-Feagans, L. (2006). Mother and father language input to young children: Contributions to later language development. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 27(6), 571–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pancsofar, N., Vernon-Feagans, L., & The Family Life Project Investigators. (2010). Fathers’ early contributions to children’s language development in families from low-income rural communities. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(4), 450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Payne, A. C., Whitehurst, G. J., & Angell, A. L. (1994). The role of home literacy environment in the development of language ability in preschool children from low-income families. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 9, 427–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pears, K., & Moses, L. (2003). Demographics, parenting, and theory of mind in preschool children. Social Development, 12, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Presser, H. B. (2004). The economy that never sleeps. Contexts, 3, 42–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Reardon, S. (2011). The widening academic achievement gap between the rich and the poor: New evidence and possible explanations. Whither Opportunity? Rising inequality, schools, and children’s life chances. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  88. Regional Educational Laboratory Network. (2004). The name assigned to the document by the author. This field may also contain sub-titles, series names, and report numbers. Responding to Regional Needs & National Priorities. Annual Report.Google Scholar
  89. Rivers, K. (2005). Rural southern children falling behind in well-being indicators (population reference bureau brief). Accessed online March 25, 2010 at
  90. Roopnarine, J. L., Fouts, H. N., Lamb, M. E., & Lewis-Elligan, T. Y. (2005). Mothers’ and fathers’ behaviors toward their 3-to 4-month-old infants in lower, middle, and upper socioeconomic African American families. Developmental Psychology, 41(5), 723–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rowe, M. L., Coker, D., & Pan, B. A. (2004). A comparison of fathers’ and mothers’ talk to toddlers in low-income families. Social Development, 13(2), 278–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rutter, M. (1990). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. In J. E Rolf, A. Matsen, & D. Cicchetti (Eds.), Risk and protective factors in the development of psychopathology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  93. Sameroff, A., & Chandler, M. (1975). Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casualty. In F. D. Horowitz, E. M. Hetherington, S. Scarr-Salapatek, & G. Siegel (Eds.), Review of child development research (Vol. 4, pp. 187–244). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  94. Sameroff, A., & Seifer, R. (1995). Accumulation of environmental risk and child mental health. In H. Fitzgerald, B. Lester, & B. Zuckerman (Eds.), Children of poverty (pp. 233–254). New York: Garland Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
  95. Schooler, C., & Schoenbach, C. (1994). Social class, occupational status, occupational self- direction, and job income: A cross-national examination. Sociological Forum, 9, 431–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schultz, D., Izard, C. E., Ackerman, B. P., & Youngstrom, E. A. (2001). Emotion knowledge in economically disadvantaged children: Self-regulatory antecedents and relations to social difficulties and withdrawal. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Seiling, S. B., Manoogian, M. M., & Son, S. (2011). “I don’t know how we would make it”—Social support in rural low-income families. In Rural families and work (pp. 157–183). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  98. Sénéchal, M., LeFevre, J., Hudson, E., & Lawson, E. (1996). Knowledge of storybooks as a predictor of children’s vocabulary. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 520–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Simons, L. G., Chen, Y., Simons, R. L., Brody, G., & Cutrona, C. (2006). Parenting practices and child adjustment in different types of households: A study of African American families. Journal of Family Issues, 27(6), 803–825. doi: 10.1177/0192513X05285447 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Smith, K. E., & Tickamyer, A. R. (Eds.). (2011). Economic restructuring and family well-being in rural America. University Park: Penn State Press.Google Scholar
  101. Taumoepeau, M., & Ruffman, T. (2006). Mother and infant talk about mental states related to desire language and emotion understanding. Child Development, 77(2), 465–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Taumoepeau, M., & Ruffman, T. (2008). Stepping stones to others’ minds: Maternal talk relates to child mental state language and emotion understanding at 15, 24, and 33 months. Child Development, 79(2), 284–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. USDA Economic Research Service (2012). Rural education. Washington, DC: ERS. Retrieved from
  104. Vernon-Feagans, L., Burchinal, M., & Mokrova, I. (2015). Diverging destinies in rural America. Families in an era of increasing inequality (pp. 35–49). New York: Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  105. Vernon-Feagans, L., Cox, M., & The Family Life Project Key Investigators (2013). The Family Life Project: An epidemiological and developmental study of young children living in poor rural communities. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 78, 1–150. Google Scholar
  106. Vernon-Feagans, L., Gallagher, K., & Kainz, K. (2010). The transition to school in rural America: A focus on literacy. In J. Eccles & J. Meece (Eds.), Handbook of research on schools, schooling, and development (pp. 163–184). Mahweh, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  107. Vernon-Feagans, L., Garrett-Peters, P., DeMarco, A., & Bratsch, M. (2012). Children living in rural poverty: The role of chaos in early development. In V. Maholmes & R. King (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of poverty and child development (pp. 448–466). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Weber, B. A., Duncan, G. J., & Whitener, L. A. (2002). Rural dimensions of welfare reform. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Weber, B., Jensen, L., Miller, K., Mosley, J., & Fisher, M. (2005). A critical review of rural poverty literature: Is there truly a rural effect. International Regional Science Review, 28, 381–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Weizman, Z. O., & Snow, C. E. (2001). Lexical output as related to children’s vocabulary acquisition: Effects of sophisticated exposure and support for meaning. Developmental Psychology, 37(2), 265–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Frank Porter Graham Child Development InstituteThe University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  2. 2.The University of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA

Personalised recommendations