Atmospheric Signal Propagation

Part of the Springer Handbooks book series (SPRINGERHAND)

Zusammenfassung

Global navigation satellite system (GNSS ) satellites emit signals that propagate as electromagnetic waves through space to the receivers which are located on or near the Earth’s surface or on other satellites. Thereby, electromagnetic waves travel through the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere (troposphere) which causes signals to be delayed, damped, and refracted as the refractivity index of the propagation media is not equal to one. In this chapter, the nature and effects of GNSS signal propagation in both the troposphere and the ionosphere, aref examined. After a brief review of the fundamentals of electromagnetic waves their propagation in refractive media, the effects of the neutral atmosphere are discussed. In addition, empirical correction models as well as the state-of-the-art atmosphere delay estimation approaches are presented. Effects related to signal propagation through the ionosphere are dealt in a dedicated section by describing the error contribution of the first up to third-order terms in the refractive index and ray path bending. After discussing diffraction and scattering phenomena due to ionospheric irregularities, mitigation techniques for different types of applications are presented.

Keywords

Global Position System Global Navigation Satellite System Global Navigation Satellite System Total Electron Content Vertical Total Electron Content 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
BDS

BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

CCIR

Comité Consultatif International des Radiocommunications

CODE

Center for Orbit Determination in Europe

DLR

Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt

ECMWF

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

EGNOS

European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service

EPB

equatorial plasma bubble

EUV

extreme ultraviolet

GFZ

Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum

GNSS

global navigation satellite system

GPS

Global Positioning System

GPT

global pressure and temperature (model)

IERS

International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service

IGS

International GNSS Service

IOV

in-orbit validation

IRI

international reference ionosphere

LOS

line-of-sight

NMF

Niell mapping function

NWM

numerical weather model

NWP

numerical weather prediction

PDOP

position dilution of precision

RMS

root mean square

RTI

Rayleigh-Taylor instability

SBAS

satellite-based augmentation system

STEC

slant total electron content

TEC

total electron content

UNB

University of New Brunswick

URSI

International Union of Radio Science

VMF

Vienna mapping function

VTEC

vertical total electron content

WAAS

Wide Area Augmentation System

ZHD

zenith hydrostatic delay

ZWD

zenith wet delay

Notes

Acknowledgements

Norbert Jakowski would like to express his gratitude to his colleagues from the German Aerospace Center with whom he has worked over many years. In particular he thanks his colleague Dr. Mohammed Mainul Hoque for close cooperation for more than a decade.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Onsala Space ObservatoryChalmers University of TechnologyOnsalaSweden
  2. 2.Institute of Communications and NavigationGerman Aerospace Center (DLR)NeustrelitzGermany

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