Advertisement

Skull Base Tumors

  • Ugur Selek
  • Erkan Topkan
  • Eric L. Chang
Chapter

Abstract

In a limited prospective data environment of skull base tumors including olfactory neuroblastoma, chordoma, chondrosarcoma, and jugulotympanic paraganglioma, this chapter tries to summarize the worldwide experience from initial admission to follow-up covering the up-to-date multimodality management options of adjuvant, definitive, or palliative intent radiotherapy along with the best possible applicable modality of IMRT, VMAT, SRS, FSRT, and proton-beam therapy.

Keywords

Olfactory neuroblastoma Esthesioneuroblastoma Chordoma Chondrosarcoma Jugulotympanic paraganglioma Glomus jugulare IMRT VMAT SRS FSRT Proton-beam therapy 

References

  1. 1.
    Kunc M, Gabrych A, Czapiewski P, et al. Paraneoplastic syndromes in olfactory neuroblastoma. Contemp Oncol. 2015;19(1):6–16.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Taraszewska A, Czorniuk-Sliwa A, Dambska M. Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma) and esthesioneuroepithelioma: histologic and immunohistochemical study. Folia Neuropathol. 1998;36(2):81–6.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hirose T, Scheithauer BW, Lopes MB, et al. Olfactory neuroblastoma. An immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and flow cytometric study. Cancer. 1995;76(1):4–19.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shah K, Perez-Ordonez B. Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the sinonasal tract: neuroendocrine carcinomas and olfactory neuroblastoma. Head Neck Pathol. 2016;10(1):85–94.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Slevin NJ, Irwin CJ, Banerjee SS, et al. Olfactory neural tumours—the role of external beam radiotherapy. J Laryngol Otol. 1996;110(11):1012–6.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stewart FM, Frieson HF. P.A. L: Esthesioneuroblastoma. Chichester: John Wiley; 1988.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ostrom QT, Gittleman H, Liao P, et al. CBTRUS statistical report: primary brain and central nervous system tumors diagnosed in the United States in 2007–2011. Neuro Oncol. 2014;16(Suppl 4):iv1–63.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Villano JL, Bressler L, Propp JM, et al. Descriptive epidemiology of selected olfactory tumors. J Neurooncol. 2010;100(1):73–80.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morita A, Ebersold MJ, Olsen KD, et al. Esthesioneuroblastoma: prognosis and management. Neurosurgery. 1993;32(5):706–14. discussion 714–5Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jethanamest D, Morris LG, Sikora AG, et al. Esthesio​neuroblastoma: a population-based analysis of survival and prognostic factors. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;133(3):276–80.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davis RE, Weissler MC. Esthesioneuroblastoma and neck metastasis. Head Neck. 1992;14(6):477–82.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Heffelfinger MJ, Dahlin DC, MacCarty CS, et al. Chordomas and cartilaginous tumors at the skull base. Cancer. 1973;32(2):410–20.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    O’Neill P, Bell BA, Miller JD, et al. Fifty years of experience with chordomas in southeast Scotland. Neurosurgery. 1985;16(2):166–70.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mitchell A, Scheithauer BW, Unni KK, et al. Chordoma and chondroid neoplasms of the spheno-occiput. An immunohistochemical study of 41 cases with prognostic and nosologic implications. Cancer. 1993;72(10):2943–9.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McMaster ML, Goldstein AM, Bromley CM, et al. Chordoma: incidence and survival patterns in the United States, 1973–1995. Cancer Causes Control. 2001;12(1):1–11.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hruban RH, Traganos F, Reuter VE, et al. Chordomas with malignant spindle cell components. A DNA flow cytometric and immunohistochemical study with histogenetic implications. Am J Pathol. 1990;137(2):435–47.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Vujovic S, Henderson S, Presneau N, et al. Brachyury, a crucial regulator of notochordal development, is a novel biomarker for chordomas. J Pathol. 2006;209(2):157–65.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sa JK, Lee IH, Hong SD, et al. Genomic and transcriptomic characterization of skull base chordoma. Oncotarget. 2017;8(1):1321–8.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krol G, Sze G, Arbit E, et al. Intradural metastases of chordoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989;10(1):193–5.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chambers PW, Schwinn CP. Chordoma. A clinicopathologic study of metastasis. Am J Clin Pathol. 1979;72(5):765–76.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Markwalder TM, Markwalder RV, Robert JL, et al. Metastatic chordoma. Surg Neurol. 1979;12(6):473–8.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Volpe R, Mazabraud A. A clinicopathologic review of 25 cases of chordoma (a pleomorphic and metastasizing neoplasm). Am J Surg Pathol. 1983;7(2):161–70.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Adegbite AB, McQueen JD, Paine KW, et al. Primary intracranial chondrosarcoma: a report of two cases. Neurosurgery. 1985;17(3):490–4.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sen CN, Sekhar LN, Schramm VL, et al. Chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the cranial base: an 8-year experience. Neurosurgery. 1989;25(6):931–40. discussion 940–1Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hogendoorn PCW, Bovee JM, Nielsen GP. Chondrosarcoma (grades I–III), including primary and secondary variants and periosteal chondrosarcoma. In: Hogendoorn PCW, Mertens F, editors. World Health Organization classification of tumours of soft tissue and bone, vol. 5. 4th ed. Lyon, France: IARC; 2013. p. 264.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rosenberg AE, Nielsen GP, Keel SB, et al. Chondrosarcoma of the base of the skull: a clinicopathologic study of 200 cases with emphasis on its distinction from chordoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 1999;23(11):1370–8.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Abenoza P, Sibley RK. Chordoma: an immunohistologic study. Hum Pathol. 1986;17(7):744–7.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Coffin CM, Swanson PE, Wick MR, et al. An immunohistochemical comparison of chordoma with renal cell carcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, and myxopapillary ependymoma: a potential diagnostic dilemma in the diminutive biopsy. Mod Pathol. 1993;6(5):531–8.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thedinger BA, Glasscock ME 3rd, Cueva RA, et al. Postoperative radiographic evaluation after acoustic neuroma and glomus jugulare tumor removal. Laryngoscope. 1992;102(3):261–6.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen H, Sippel RS, O’Dorisio MS, et al. The north American neuroendocrine tumor society consensus guideline for the diagnosis and management of neuroendocrine tumors: pheochromocytoma, paraganglioma, and medullary thyroid cancer. Pancreas. 2010;39(6):775–83.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Spector GJ, Sobol S, Thawley SE, et al. Panel discussion: glomus jugulare tumors of the temporal bone. Patterns of invasion in the temporal bone. Laryngoscope. 1979;89(10 Pt 1):1628–39.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Spector GJ, Gado M, Ciralsky R, et al. Neurologic implications of glomus tumors in the head and neck. Laryngoscope. 1975;85(8):1387–95.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Welander J, Soderkvist P, Gimm O. Genetics and clinical characteristics of hereditary pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2011;18(6):R253–76.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Barnes L, Tse LL, Hunt JL, et al. Tumours of the paraganglionic system: introduction. In: Barnes L, Eveson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D, editors. World Health Organization classification of tumours pathology & genetics head and neck tumours. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2005. p. 362.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Michaels L, Soucek S, Beale T, et al. Jugulotympanic paraganglioma. In: Barnes L, Eveson JW, Reichart P, Sidransky D, editors. World Health Organization classification of tumours pathology & genetics head and neck tumours. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2005. p. 366.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dannenberg H, Dinjens WN, Abbou M, et al. Frequent germ-line succinate dehydrogenase subunit D gene mutations in patients with apparently sporadic parasympathetic paraganglioma. Clin Cancer Res. 2002;8(7):2061–6.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lee JA, Duh QY. Sporadic paraganglioma. World J Surg. 2008;32(5):683–7.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Avramovic N, Weckesser M, Velasco A, et al. Long distance endovascular growth of jugulotympanic paraganglioma evident in 68Ga-DOTATATE PET but concealed on CT. Clin Nucl Med. 2017;42(2):135–7.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gulya AJ. The glomus tumor and its biology. Laryngoscope. 1993;103(11 Pt 2 Suppl 60):7–15.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lawson W. The neuroendocrine nature of the glomus cells: an experimental, ultrastructural, and histochemical tissue culture study. Laryngoscope. 1980;90(1):120–44.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    van Duinen N, Steenvoorden D, Kema IP, et al. Increased urinary excretion of 3-methoxytyramine in patients with head and neck paragangliomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(1):209–14.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Erickson D, Kudva YC, Ebersold MJ, et al. Benign paragangliomas: clinical presentation and treatment outcomes in 236 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86(11):5210–6.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hahn S, Palmer JN, Adappa ND. A catecholamine-secreting skull base sinonasal paraganglioma presenting with labile hypertension in a patient with previously undiagnosed genetic mutation. J Neurol Surg Rep. 2012;73(1):19–24.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tran Ba Huy P, Duet M, Abulizi M, et al. Skull base paraganglioma and intracranial hypertension. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136(1):91–4.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Alzahrani AS, Alshaikh O, Faiyaz-Ul-Haque M, et al. Multiple paraganglioma syndrome type 4 due to succinate dehydrogenase B mutation: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of a skull base paraganglioma masquerading as nasopharyngeal cancer. Endocr Pract. 2010;16(3):452–8.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brown JS. Glomus jugulare tumors revisited: a ten-year statistical follow-up of 231 cases. Laryngoscope. 1985;95(3):284–8.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Woods CI, Strasnick B, Jackson CG. Surgery for glomus tumors: the Otology Group experience. Laryngoscope. 1993;103(11 Pt 2 Suppl 60):65–70.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Boedeker CC, Neumann HP, Maier W, et al. Malignant head and neck paragangliomas in SDHB mutation carriers. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;137(1):126–9.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    DeMonte F, Chernov M, Fuller G, et al. Skull base. In: Goepfert H, Ang KK, Clayman GL, Diaz EM, Ginsberg LE, Khuri FR, Suarez P, editors. MD Anderson Online Book: Multidisciplinary care of head and neck cancer; 2002. www.headneckcancer.org.
  50. 50.
    Raghavan P, Kesser BW, Wintermark M, et al. Temporal bone and skull base. In: Raghavan P, Mukherjee S, Jameson MJ, Wintermark M, editors. Manual of head and neck imaging. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 2014. p. 189–256.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Olsen ML, Dillon WP, Kelly WM. MR imaging of paragangliomas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1986;7:1039–42.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Curtin HD, Rabinov JD, Som PM. Central skull base: embryology, anatomy, and pathology, vol. 1. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2003.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Firooznia H, Pinto RS, Lin JP, et al. Chordoma: radiologic evaluation of 20 cases. Am J Roentgenol. 1976;127(5):797–805.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Conley LM, Phillips CD. Imaging of the central skull base. Radiol Clin N Am. 2017;55(1):53–67.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Meyers SP, Hirsch WL Jr, Curtin HD, et al. Chordomas of the skull base: MR features. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1992;13(6):1627–36.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Larson TC 3rd, Houser OW, Laws ER Jr. Imaging of cranial chordomas. Mayo Clin Proc. 1987;62(10):886–93.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Azzopardi C, Grech R, Mizzi A. Teaching NeuroImages: chordoma. Neurology. 2014;83(10):e110–1.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brown E, Hug EB, Weber AL. Chondrosarcoma of the skull base. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 1994;4(3):529–41.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Oot RF, Melville GE, New PF, et al. The role of MR and CT in evaluating clival chordomas and chondrosarcomas. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988;151(3):567–75.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dublin AB, Bobinski M. Imaging characteristics of olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma). J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2016;77(1):1–5.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Elkhatib AH, Soldatova L, Carrau RL, et al. Role of 18 F-FDG PET/CT differentiating olfactory neuroblastoma from sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 2017;127(2):321–4.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nguyen BD, Roarke MC, Nelson KD, et al. F-18 FDG PET/CT staging and posttherapeutic assessment of esthesioneuroblastoma. Clin Nucl Med. 2006;31(3):172–4.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Muller U, Kubik-Huch RA, Ares C, et al. Is there a role for conventional MRI and MR diffusion-weighted imaging for distinction of skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma? Acta Radiol. 2016;57(2):225–32.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Yeom KW, Lober RM, Mobley BC, et al. Diffusion-weighted MRI: distinction of skull base chordoma from chondrosarcoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2013;34(5):1056–61. S1051Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ma JP, Tian KB, Wang L, et al. Proposal and validation of a basic progression scoring system for patients with skull base chordoma. World Neurosurg. 2016;91:409–18.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kadish S, Goodman M, Wang CC. Olfactory neuroblastoma. A clinical analysis of 17 cases. Cancer. 1976;37(3):1571–6.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Krayenbuhl H, Yasargil M. Cranial chordomas. Prog Neurol Surg. 1975;6:380–434.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Raffel C, Wright DC, Gutin PH, et al. Cranial chordomas: clinical presentation and results of operative and radiation therapy in twenty-six patients. Neurosurgery. 1985;17(5):703–10.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sekhar LN, Sen C, Snyderman C. Anterior, anteriolateral, and lateral approaches to extradural petroclival tumors. New York: Raven Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fisch U. Infratemporal fossa approach to tumours of the temporal bone and base of the skull. J Laryngol Otol. 1978;92(11):949–67.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jackson CG, Glasscock ME 3rd, Harris PF. Glomus tumors. Diagnosis, classification, and management of large lesions. Arch Otolaryngol. 1982;108(7):401–10.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Resto VA, Eisele DW, Forastiere A, et al. Esthesioneuroblastoma: the Johns Hopkins experience. Head Neck. 2000;22(6):550–8.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dulguerov P, Calcaterra T. Esthesioneuroblastoma: the UCLA experience 1970–1990. Laryngoscope. 1992;102(8):843–9.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dulguerov P, Allal AS, Calcaterra TC. Esthesioneuroblastoma: a meta-analysis and review. Lancet Oncol. 2001;2(11):683–90.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Levine PA, McLean WC, Cantrell RW. Esthesioneuroblastoma: the University of Virginia experience 1960–1985. Laryngoscope. 1986;96(7):742–6.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Unger F, Haselsberger K, Walch C, et al. Combined endoscopic surgery and radiosurgery as treatment modality for olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma). Acta Neurochir. 2005;147(6):595–601. discussion 601–592Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fu TS, Monteiro E, Muhanna N, et al. Comparison of outcomes for open versus endoscopic approaches for olfactory neuroblastoma: a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis. Head Neck. 2016;38(Suppl 1):E2306–16.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Folbe A, Herzallah I, Duvvuri U, et al. Endoscopic endonasal resection of esthesioneuroblastoma: a multicenter study. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2009;23(1):91–4.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kim BJ, Kim DW, Kim SW, et al. Endoscopic versus traditional craniofacial resection for patients with sinonasal tumors involving the anterior skull base. Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;1(3):148–53.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Papacharalampous GX, Vlastarakos PV, Chrysovergis A, et al. Olfactory neuroblastoma (esthesioneuroblastoma): towards minimally invasive surgery and multi-modality treatment strategies – an updated critical review of the current literature. J BUON. 2013;18(3):557–63.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Devaiah AK, Andreoli MT. Treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma: a 16-year meta-analysis of 361 patients. Laryngoscope. 2009;119(7):1412–6.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Koka VN, Julieron M, Bourhis J, et al. Aesthesioneuroblastoma. J Laryngol Otol. 1998;112(7):628–33.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Eich HT, Staar S, Micke O, et al. Radiotherapy of esthesioneuroblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;49(1):155–60.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Eriksen JG, Bastholt L, Krogdahl AS, et al. Esthesio​neuroblastoma—what is the optimal treatment? Acta Oncol. 2000;39(2):231–5.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gruber G, Laedrach K, Baumert B, et al. Esthesioneuroblastoma: irradiation alone and surgery alone are not enough. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2002;54(2):486–91.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chao KS, Kaplan C, Simpson JR, et al. Esthesioneuroblastoma: the impact of treatment modality. Head Neck. 2001;23(9):749–57.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Petruzzelli GJ, Howell JB, Pederson A, et al. Multidisciplinary treatment of olfactory neuroblastoma: patterns of failure and management of recurrence. Am J Otolaryngol. 2015;36(4):547–53.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nalavenkata SB, Sacks R, Adappa ND, et al. Olfactory neuroblastoma: fate of the neck—a long-term multicenter retrospective study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;154(2):383–9.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Aljumaily RM, Nystrom JS, Wein RO. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the setting of locally advanced olfactory neuroblastoma with intracranial extension. Rare tumors. 2011;3(1):e1.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Herr MW, Sethi RK, Meier JC, et al. Esthesioneuroblastoma: an update on the Massachusetts eye and ear infirmary and Massachusetts general hospital experience with craniofacial resection, proton beam radiation, and chemotherapy. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2014;75(1):58–64.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kim HJ, Kim CH, Lee BJ, et al. Surgical treatment versus concurrent chemoradiotherapy as an initial treatment modality in advanced olfactory neuroblastoma. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2007;34(4):493–8.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rosenthal DI, Barker JL Jr, El-Naggar AK, et al. Sinonasal malignancies with neuroendocrine differentiation: patterns of failure according to histologic phenotype. Cancer. 2004;101:2567–73.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Benfari G, Fusconi M, Ciofalo A, et al. Radiotherapy alone for local tumour control in esthesioneuroblastoma. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2008;28(6):292–7.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    McElroy EA Jr, Buckner JC, Lewis JE. Chemotherapy for advanced esthesioneuroblastoma: the Mayo Clinic experience. Neurosurgery. 1998;42(5):1023–7. discussion 1027–8Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Levine PA, Gallagher R, Cantrell RW. Esthesioneuroblastoma: reflections of a 21-year experience. Laryngoscope. 1999;109(10):1539–43.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Polin RS, Sheehan JP, Chenelle AG, et al. The role of preoperative adjuvant treatment in the management of esthesioneuroblastoma: the University of Virginia experience. Neurosurgery. 1998;42(5):1029–37.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Giridhar P, Mallick S, Laviraj MA, et al. Esthesioneuroblastoma with large intracranial extension treated with induction chemotherapy, de-bulking surgery and image guided intensity modulated radiotherapy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;273(5):1323–5.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Madani I, Bonte K, Vakaet L, et al. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for sinonasal tumors: Ghent University Hospital update. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009;73(2):424–32.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wiegner EA, Daly ME, Murphy JD, et al. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: clinical outcomes and patterns of failure. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;83(1):243–51.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Pacholke HD, Amdur RJ, Louis DA, et al. The role of intensity modulated radiation therapy for favorable stage tumor of the nasal cavity or ethmoid sinus. Am J Clin Oncol. 2005;28(5):474–8.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Jensen AD, Nikoghosyan AV, Windemuth-Kieselbach C, et al. Treatment of malignant sinonasal tumours with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and carbon ion boost (C12). BMC Cancer. 2010;11:190.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hu YW, Lin CZ, Li WY, et al. Locally advanced oncocytic carcinoma of the nasal cavity treated with surgery and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. J Chin Med Assoc. 2010;73(3):166–72.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hoppe BS, Wolden SL, Zelefsky MJ, et al. Postoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy for cancers of the paranasal sinuses, nasal cavity, and lacrimal glands: technique, early outcomes, and toxicity. Head Neck. 2008;30(7):925–32.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Duthoy W, Boterberg T, Claus F, et al. Postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy in sinonasal carcinoma: clinical results in 39 patients. Cancer. 2005;104(1):71–82.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Dirix P, Vanstraelen B, Jorissen M, et al. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for sinonasal cancer: improved outcome compared to conventional radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;78(4):998–1004.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Dirix P, Nuyts S, Vanstraelen B, et al. Post-operative intensity-modulated radiotherapy for malignancies of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Radiother Oncol. 2007;85(3):385–91.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Chen AM, Daly ME, Bucci MK, et al. Carcinomas of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity treated with radiotherapy at a single institution over five decades: are we making improvement? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;69(1):141–7.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Buiret G, Montbarbon X, Fleury B, et al. Inverted papilloma with associated carcinoma of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses: treatment outcomes. Acta Otolaryngol. 2010;132(1):80–5.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    McLean JN, Nunley SR, Klass C, et al. Combined modality therapy of esthesioneuroblastoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;136(6):998–1002.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Mori T, Onimaru R, Onodera S, et al. Olfactory neuroblastoma: the long-term outcome and late toxicity of multimodal therapy including radiotherapy based on treatment planning using computed tomography. Radiat Oncol. 2015;10:88.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Nakamura N, Zenda S, Tahara M, et al. Proton beam therapy for olfactory neuroblastoma. Radiother Oncol. 2017;122(3):368–72.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Rimmer J, Lund VJ, Beale T, et al. Olfactory neuroblastoma: a 35-year experience and suggested follow-up protocol. Laryngoscope. 2014;124(7):1542–9.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Eden BV, Debo RF, Larner JM, et al. Esthesioneuroblastoma. Long-term outcome and patterns of failure—the University of Virginia experience. Cancer. 1994;73(10):2556–62.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wang L, Tian K, Wang K, et al. Factors for tumor progression in patients with skull base chordoma. Cancer Med. 2016;5(9):2368–77.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Tian K, Wang L, Wang K, et al. Analysis of clinical features and outcomes of skull base chordoma in different age-groups. World Neurosurg. 2016;92:407–17.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Tian K, Zhang H, Ma J, et al. Factors for overall survival in patients with skull base chordoma: a retrospective analysis of 225 patients. World Neurosurg. 2017;97:39–48.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Wang L, Wu Z, Tian K, et al. Clinical features and surgical outcomes of patients with skull base chordoma: a retrospective analysis of 238 patients. J Neurosurg. 2017;127(6):1257–67.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Slater JM, Slater JD, Archambeau JO. Proton therapy for cranial base tumors. J Craniofac Surg. 1995;6(1):24–6.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    al-Mefty O, Borba LA. Skull base chordomas: a management challenge. J Neurosurg. 1997;86(2):182–9.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Debus J, Haberer T, Schulz-Ertner D, et al. Carbon ion irradiation of skull base tumors at GSI. First clinical results and future perspectives. Strahlenther Onkol. 2000;176(5):211–6.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    McDonald MW, Linton OR, Moore MG, et al. Influence of residual tumor volume and radiation dose coverage in outcomes for clival chordoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2016;95(1):304–11.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Krengli M, Poletti A, Ferrara E, et al. Tumour seeding in the surgical pathway after resection of skull base chordoma. Rep Pract Oncol Radiother. 2016;21(4):407–11.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Klekamp J, Samii M. Spinal chordomas—results of treatment over a 17-year period. Acta Neurochir. 1996;138(5):514–9.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Romero J, Cardenes H, la Torre A, et al. Chordoma: results of radiation therapy in eighteen patients. Radiother Oncol. 1993;29(1):27–32.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Munzenrider JE, Liebsch NJ. Proton therapy for tumors of the skull base. Strahlenther Onkol. 1999;175(Suppl 2):57–63.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Amichetti M, Cianchetti M, Amelio D, et al. Proton therapy in chordoma of the base of the skull: a systematic review. Neurosurg Rev. 2009;32(4):403–16.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Casali PG, Stacchiotti S, Sangalli C, et al. Chordoma. Curr Opin Oncol. 2007;19(4):367–70.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Uhl M, Mattke M, Welzel T, et al. Highly effective treatment of skull base chordoma with carbon ion irradiation using a raster scan technique in 155 patients: first long-term results. Cancer. 2014;120(21):3410–7.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Weber DC, Malyapa R, Albertini F, et al. Long term outcomes of patients with skull-base low-grade chondrosarcoma and chordoma patients treated with pencil beam scanning proton therapy. Radiother Oncol. 2016;120(1):169–74.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Sahgal A, Chan MW, Atenafu EG, et al. Image-guided, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) for skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma: preliminary outcomes. Neuro Oncol. 2015;17(6):889–94.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kim JW, Suh CO, Hong CK, et al. Maximum surgical resection and adjuvant intensity-modulated radiotherapy with simultaneous integrated boost for skull base chordoma. Acta Neurochir. 2017;59(10):1825–34.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Jahangiri A, Chin AT, Wagner JR, et al. Factors predicting recurrence after resection of clival chordoma using variable surgical approaches and radiation modalities. Neurosurgery. 2015;76(2):179–85. discussion 185–176Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Di Maio S, Yip S, Al Zhrani GA, et al. Novel targeted therapies in chordoma: an update. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2015;11:873–83.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Bloch O, Parsa AT. Skull base chondrosarcoma: evidence-based treatment paradigms. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2013;24(1):89–96.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Samii A, Gerganov V, Herold C, et al. Surgical treatment of skull base chondrosarcomas. Neurosurg Rev. 2009;32(1):67–75. discussion 75Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sekhar LN, Pranatartiharan R, Chanda A, et al. Chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the skull base: results and complications of surgical management. Neurosurg Focus. 2001;10(3):E2.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Tzortzidis F, Elahi F, Wright DC, et al. Patient outcome at long-term follow-up after aggressive microsurgical resection of cranial base chondrosarcomas. Neurosurgery. 2006;58(6):1090–8. discussion 1090–8Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Gay E, Sekhar LN, Rubinstein E, et al. Chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the cranial base: results and follow-up of 60 patients. Neurosurgery. 1995;36(5):887–96. discussion 896–7Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Oghalai JS, Buxbaum JL, Jackler RK, et al. Skull base chondrosarcoma originating from the petroclival junction. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26(5):1052–60.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Bloch OG, Jian BJ, Yang I, et al. A systematic review of intracranial chondrosarcoma and survival. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16(12):1547–51.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bloch OG, Jian BJ, Yang I, et al. Cranial chondrosarcoma and recurrence. Skull Base. 2010;20(3):149–56.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Cho YH, Kim JH, Khang SK, et al. Chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the skull base: comparative analysis of clinical results in 30 patients. Neurosurg Rev. 2008;31(1):35–43. discussion 43Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Schulz-Ertner D, Nikoghosyan A, Hof H, et al. Carbon ion radiotherapy of skull base chondrosarcomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2007;67(1):171–7.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Nikoghosyan AV, Rauch G, Munter MW, et al. Randomised trial of proton vs. carbon ion radiation therapy in patients with low and intermediate grade chondrosarcoma of the skull base, clinical phase III study. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:606.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Martin JJ, Niranjan A, Kondziolka D, et al. Radiosurgery for chordomas and chondrosarcomas of the skull base. J Neurosurg. 2007;107(4):758–64.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Iyer A, Kano H, Kondziolka D, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery for intracranial chondrosarcoma. J Neurooncol. 2012;108(3):535–42.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kano H, Sheehan J, Sneed PK, et al. Skull base chondrosarcoma radiosurgery: report of the North American Gamma Knife Consortium. J Neurosurg. 2015;123(5):1268–75.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Green JD Jr, Brackmann DE, Nguyen CD, et al. Surgical management of previously untreated glomus jugulare tumors. Laryngoscope. 1994;104(8 Pt 1):917–21.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Patel SJ, Sekhar LN, Cass SP, et al. Combined approaches for resection of extensive glomus jugulare tumors. A review of 12 cases. J Neurosurg. 1994;80(6):1026–38.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Anand VK, Leonetti JP, al-Mefty O. Neurovascular considerations in surgery of glomus tumors with intracranial extensions. Laryngoscope. 1993;103(7):722–8.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Watkins LD, Mendoza N, Cheesman AD, et al. Glomus jugulare tumours: a review of 61 cases. Acta Neurochir. 1994;130(1–4):66–70.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Springate SC, Haraf D, Weichselbaum RR. Temporal bone chemodectomas--comparing surgery and radiation therapy. Oncology (Huntingt). 1991;5(4):131–7. discussion 140, 143Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    van der Mey AG, Frijns JH, Cornelisse CJ, et al. Does intervention improve the natural course of glomus tumors? A series of 108 patients seen in a 32-year period. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1992;101(8):635–42.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Gstoettner W, Matula C, Hamzavi J, et al. Long-term results of different treatment modalities in 37 patients with glomus jugulare tumors. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1999;256(7):351–5.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gjuric M, Rudiger Wolf S, Wigand ME, et al. Cranial nerve and hearing function after combined-approach surgery for glomus jugulare tumors. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1996;105(12):949–54.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Cole JM, Beiler D. Long-term results of treatment for glomus jugulare and glomus vagale tumors with radiotherapy. Laryngoscope. 1994;104(12):1461–5.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Larner JM, Hahn SS, Spaulding CA, et al. Glomus jugulare tumors. Long-term control by radiation therapy. Cancer. 1992;69(7):1813–7.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Schild SE, Foote RL, Buskirk SJ, et al. Results of radiotherapy for chemodectomas. Mayo Clin Proc. 1992;67(6):537–40.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Skolyszewski J, Korzeniowski S, Pszon J. Results of radiotherapy in chemodectoma of the temporal bone. Acta Oncol. 1991;30(7):847–9.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Pemberton LS, Swindell R, Sykes AJ. Radical radiotherapy alone for glomus jugulare and tympanicum tumours. Oncol Rep. 2005;14(6):1631–3.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Henzel M, Hamm K, Gross MW, et al. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of glomus jugulare tumors. Local control, toxicity, symptomatology, and quality of life. Strahlenther Onkol. 2007;183(10):557–62.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wegner RE, Rodriguez KD, Heron DE, et al. Linac-based stereotactic body radiation therapy for treatment of glomus jugulare tumors. Radiother Oncol. 2010;97(3):395–8.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Schuster D, Sweeney AD, Stavas MJ, et al. Initial radiographic tumor control is similar following single or multi-fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery for jugular paragangliomas. Am J Otolaryngol. 2016;37(3):255–8.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Winford TW, Dorton LH, Browne JD, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgical treatment of glomus jugulare tumors. Otol Neurotol. 2017;38(4):555–62.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ibrahim R, Ammori MB, Yianni J, et al. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for glomus jugulare tumors: a single-center series of 75 cases. J Neurosurg. 2016;126(5):1488–97.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Hafez RF, Morgan MS, Fahmy OM. An intermediate term benefits and complications of gamma knife surgery in management of glomus jugulare tumor. World J Surg Oncol. 2016;14(1):36.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Dobberpuhl MR, Maxwell S, Feddock J, et al. Treatment outcomes for single modality management of glomus jugulare tumors with stereotactic radiosurgery. Otol Neurotol. 2016;37(9):1406–10.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Jacob JT, Pollock BE, Carlson ML, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery in the management of vestibular schwannoma and glomus jugulare: indications, techniques, and results. Otolaryngol Clin N Am. 2015;48(3):515–26.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    El Majdoub F, Hunsche S, Igressa A, et al. Stereotactic LINAC-radiosurgery for glomus jugulare tumors: a long-term follow-up of 27 patients. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0129057.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Ko HC, Gupta V, Mourad WF, et al. A contouring guide for head and neck cancers with perineural invasion. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2014;4(6):e247–58.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Fowler JF. 21 years of biologically effective dose. Br J Radiol. 2010;83(991):554–68.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Mayo C, Yorke E, Merchant TE. Radiation associated brainstem injury. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76(3 Suppl):S36–41.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Lawrence YR, Li XA, el Naqa I, et al. Radiation dose-volume effects in the brain. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76(3 Suppl):S20–7.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Mayo C, Martel MK, Marks LB, et al. Radiation dose-volume effects of optic nerves and chiasm. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76(3 Suppl):S28–35.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Jackson A, Marks LB, Bentzen SM, et al. The lessons of QUANTEC: recommendations for reporting and gathering data on dose-volume dependencies of treatment outcome. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76(3 Suppl):S155–60.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Marks LB, Yorke ED, Jackson A, et al. Use of normal tissue complication probability models in the clinic. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2010;76(3 Suppl):S10–9.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ugur Selek
    • 1
    • 2
  • Erkan Topkan
    • 3
  • Eric L. Chang
    • 4
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyKoc University, School of MedicineIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Radiation Oncology DepartmentUniversity of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Baskent Department of Radiation OncologyUniversity Adana Medical FacultyAdanaTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Radiation OncologyKeck School of Medicine of University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations