Laryngospasm may occur during induction or emergence from general anesthesia, or following irritation of the upper airway from any cause in semiconscious patients. There is no reliable prevention, so treatment is the only recourse. The consequences of ineffective treatment are pulmonary edema and occasionally death. The standard treatment techniques such as positive pressure ventilation with oxygen are rarely effective. The ideal treatment is described and illustrated.
- Laryngeal anatomy
- Laryngospasm notch