Neuro-ophthalmology: Neuromuscular Control of the Eyeball

  • Mohammad Wakeel AnsariEmail author
  • Ahmed Nadeem


The word optic nerve (ON) is a misnomer because this entity is not a nerve in the classic sense. Embryologically, it is a part of the brain, with which it has many common denominators. Both have a double blood supply, a peripheral and a central one, and it does not have a neurilemma; therefore after degeneration its fibers do not regenerate. It is likely to suffer from a degenerative disorder of the brain. Actually, it is a tract that consists of the axons of the ganglion cells of the retina that end in the lateral geniculate nucleus, where a new neuron takes over from its six layers.


Optic nerve Axons of ganglion cells of retina Posterior scleral foramen Optic chiasma Optic tract Lateral geniculate nucleus Pupillary fibers Pretectal nucleus Neuromuscular control Optic radiation Visual center in occipital lobe Nucleus of third, fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh cranial nerves Origin in posterior cranial fossa 

Suggested Reading

  1. Parsons’ Diseases of the Eye, edn 16. Revised by Miller SJH. London: Churchill Livingstone; 1979. pp. 1–14; 545–60Google Scholar
  2. Riordon-Eva P, Cunningham E (2011) Vaughan and Asbury’s general ophthalmology, edn 18. McGraw Hill, New York, pp 1–26Google Scholar
  3. Trevor-Roper PD (1974) The eye and its disorders. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, pp 26–44, 323–34Google Scholar
  4. Wolff’s E (1976) Anatomy of the eye and orbit, edn 7. Revised by Warwick R. London: HK Lewis; 1976; pp. 1–29; 30–180DGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Des PlainesUSA
  2. 2.Core Faculty, Emergency Medicine Residency ProgramMidwestern UniversityDowners GroveUSA
  3. 3.Provident Hospital of Cook CountyCook County Health and Hospitals Systems, Emergency MedicineChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations