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The Basal Ganglia and Decision-Making in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

  • Sule Tinaz
  • Chantal E. SternEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Innovations in Cognitive Neuroscience book series (Innovations Cogn.Neuroscience)

Abstract

Decision-making is the process of choosing an appropriate series of goal-directed actions. It is a multidisciplinary topic that has been approached from different angles in various research fields including psychology, neuroscience, and economics. Our decisions are informed by our past (memory), dependent on the current situation (context), and are motivated by rewards. Basic reward features including magnitude, probability, and time play a central role in decision-making processes. Extensive research has explored the elements of decision-making in detailed computational models and demonstrated the potential neurophysiological mechanisms for decision-making using functional neuroimaging methods. There is an extensive literature on the role of basal ganglia-cortical circuits and dopamine in decision-making in healthy people and individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders. In this chapter, we provide an overview of terms used in decision-making research and an overview of the behavioral and neural correlates of decision-making. This is followed by a description of how different aspects of decision-making are affected in a number of neuropsychiatric conditions. Basic research provides a framework for analyzing potential pathological mechanisms within the basal ganglia-cortical circuits that contribute to decision-making deficits across different neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, disturbances in dopaminergic pathways and the regulation of these pathways could contribute to alterations in decision-making in disorders including Parkinson’s disease, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Tourette syndrome, Schizophrenia, and Mood disorders.

Keywords

Goal-directed behavior Reward Basal ganglia Dopamine Parkinson’s disease Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Obsessive compulsive disorder Tourette syndrome Schizophrenia Mood disorders 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyYale School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychological and Brain SciencesCenter for Memory and Brain, Boston UniversityBostonUSA

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