Advertisement

Individual Differences and Motivational Effects

  • Benjamin Katz
  • Masha R. Jones
  • Priti Shah
  • Martin Buschkuehl
  • Susanne M. Jaeggi
Chapter

Abstract

Why do some people improve on untrained tasks following cognitive training while others do not? One possibility is that there are individual difference factors that play a key role in cognitive training outcomes. The present chapter examines a range of these factors, including baseline performance, age, personality, and motivation. Some of these factors, such as baseline performance and age, have long been examined in the context of cognitive training, and extant research provides evidence that they contribute to the outcome of both training-related improvements as well as transfer gains. Other factors, including personality and motivation, remain largely unexamined in the context of cognitive training, but preliminary research indicates that they may play a substantial role in the success of these interventions. We suggest that researchers ignore these factors at their peril and that future cognitive training studies should incorporate measures of individual differences in studies well powered enough to examine them. Furthermore, it is possible that for training interventions to be broadly successful for large populations, they must be personalized to take these factors into account.

Keywords

Working memory Motivation Age Personality Baseline performance Transfer 

References

  1. Au, J., Sheehan, E., Tsai, N., Duncan, G. J., Buschkuehl, M., & Jaeggi, S. M. (2014). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22(2), 366–377. doi: 10.3758/s13423-014-0699-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Borella, E., Carretti, B., Cantarella, A., Riboldi, F., Zavagnin, M., & De Beni, R. (2014). Benefits of training visuospatial working memory in young–old and old–old. Developmental Psychology, 50(3), 714–727. doi: 10.1037/a0034293.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Brehmer, Y., Westerberg, H., & Bäckman, L. (2012). Working-memory training in younger and older adults: Training gains, transfer, and maintenance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 63. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00063.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Chein, J. M., & Morrison, A. B. (2010). Expanding the mind’s workspace: Training and transfer effects with a complex working memory span task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 17(2), 193–199. doi: 10.3758/PBR.17.2.193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gruszka, A., Matthews, G., & Szymura, B. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of individual differences in cognition: Attention, memory, and executive control (pp. 295–320). New York: Springer. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-1210-7.
  6. Hardy, J. L., Nelson, R. A., Thomason, M. E., Sternberg, D. A., Katovich, K., Farzin, F., et al. (2015). Enhancing cognitive abilities with comprehensive training: A large, online, randomized, active-controlled trial. PLoS One, 10(9), 1–17. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jackson, J. J., Hill, P. L., Payne, B. R., Roberts, B. W., & Stine-Morrow, E. A. (2012). Can an old dog learn (and want to experience) new tricks? Cognitive training increases openness to experience in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 27(2), 286–292. doi: 10.1037/a0025918.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Perrig, W. J. (2008). Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(19), 6829–6833. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0801268105.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Jonides, J., & Shah, P. (2011). Short-and long-term benefits of cognitive training. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(25), 10081–10086. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1103228108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., Shah, P., & Jonides, J. (2014). The role of individual differences in cognitive training and transfer. Memory & Cognition, 42(3), 464–480. doi: 10.3758/s13421-013-0364-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Karbach, J., & Unger, K. (2014). Executive control training from middle childhood to adolescence. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 390. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00390.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Karbach, J., & Verhaeghen, P. (2014). Making working memory work: A meta-analysis of executive-control and working memory training in older adults. Psychological Science, 25(11), 2027–2037. doi: 10.1177/0956797614548725.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Katz, B., Jaeggi, S., Buschkuehl, M., Shah, P., & Jonides, J. (submitted for publication). The effect of monetary compensation on cognitive training.Google Scholar
  14. Katz, B., Jaeggi, S., Buschkuehl, M., Stegman, A., & Shah, P. (2014). Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 242. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00242.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Klingberg, T., Fernell, E., Olesen, P. J., Johnson, M., Gustafsson, P., Dahlström, K., et al. (2005). Computerized training of working memory in children with ADHD—A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 44(2), 177–186. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200502000-00010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Melby-Lervåg, M., & Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental Psychology, 49(2), 270–291. doi: 10.1037/a0028228.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Open Science Collaboration. (2015). Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science. Science, 349(6251), 943–951. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Redick, T. S., Shipstead, Z., Harrison, T. L., Hicks, K. L., Fried, D. E., Hambrick, D. Z., et al. (2013). No evidence of intelligence improvement after working memory training: A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142(2), 359–379. doi: 10.1037/a0029082.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Richmond, L. L., Morrison, A. B., Chein, J. M., & Olson, I. R. (2011). Working memory training and transfer in older adults. Psychology and Aging, 26(4), 813–822. doi: 10.1037/a0023631.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Salthouse, T. A. (1996). The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Psychological Review, 103(3), 403–428. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.103.3.403.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Schaie, K. W., Willis, S. L., & Caskie, G. I. (2004). The Seattle longitudinal study: Relationship between personality and cognition. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 11(2–3), 304–324. doi: 10.1080/13825580490511134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schmiedek, F., Lövdén, M., & Lindenberger, U. (2010). Hundred days of cognitive training enhance broad cognitive abilities in adulthood: Findings from the COGITO study. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2, 27. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2010.00027.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Schwaighofer, M., Fischer, F., & Bühner, M. (2015). Does working memory training transfer? A meta-analysis including training conditions as moderators. Educational Psychologist, 50(2), 138–166. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2015.1036274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Snow, R. E. (1991). Aptitude-treatment interaction as a framework for research on individual differences in psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59(2), 205–216. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.59.2.205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Studer-Luethi, B., Bauer, C., & Perrig, W. J. (2015). Working memory training in children: Effectiveness depends on temperament. Memory & Cognition, 44(2), 171–186. doi: 10.3758/s13421-015-0548-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Studer-Luethi, B., Jaeggi, S. M., Buschkuehl, M., & Perrig, W. J. (2012). Influence of neuroticism and conscientiousness on working memory training outcome. Personality and Individual Differences, 53(1), 44–49. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2012.02.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Urbánek, T., & Marček, V. (2015). Investigating the effectiveness of working memory training in the context of Personality Systems Interaction theory. Psychological Research, 1–12. doi: 10.1007/s00426-015-0687-4.
  28. Willis, S. L. (1989). Improvement with cognitive training: Which old dogs learn what tricks? In Poon, L. W., Rubin, D. C., & Wilson, B. A. (Eds.), Everyday cognition in adulthood and late life (pp. 545–569). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; xii, 708 pp. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511759390.
  29. Verhaeghen, P., Marcoen, A., & Goossens, L. (1992). Improving memory performance in the aged through mnemonic training: a meta-analytic study. Psychology and aging, 7(2), 242.doi: 10.1037/0882-7974.7.2.242.
  30. Wass, S. V., Scerif, G., & Johnson, M. H. (2012). Training attentional control and working memory–Is younger, better?. Developmental Review, 32(4), 360-387.doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2012.07.001.
  31. Willis, S. L., & Caskie, G. I. (2013). Reasoning training in the ACTIVE study: how much is needed and who benefits? Journal of Aging and Health, 25(8 Suppl), 43S–64S. doi: 10.1177/0898264313503987.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Zinke, K., Zeintl, M., Eschen, A., Herzog, C., & Kliegel, M. (2012). Potentials and limits of plasticity induced by working memory training in old-old age. Gerontology, 58(1), 79–87. doi: 10.1159/000324240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Zinke, K., Zeintl, M., Rose, N. S., Putzmann, J., Pydde, A., & Kliegel, M. (2014). Working memory training and transfer in older adults: Effects of age, baseline performance, and training gains. Developmental Psychology, 50(1), 304–315. doi: 10.1037/a0032982.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin Katz
    • 1
  • Masha R. Jones
    • 2
  • Priti Shah
    • 1
  • Martin Buschkuehl
    • 3
  • Susanne M. Jaeggi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.School of EducationUniversity of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  3. 3.MIND Research InstituteIrvineUSA

Personalised recommendations