Biodiversity Assessment of Freshwater Shrimps and Crabs in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest, Singapore
- 609 Downloads
The Nee Soon Swamp Forest (NSSF) (87 ha) in Singapore houses a rich diversity of fauna and is the only area of primary freshwater swamp left on that island. The current study investigates the diversity and population changes of the freshwater decapod fauna of the NSSF with the aim of facilitating future conservation actions. Surveys were carried out by hand sampling and trap sampling from February 2013 to May 2014 in 12 sites in the NSSF that represent different microhabitats from the outskirts to the lower, middle, and upper reaches of the streams draining the swamp forest. Stream water parameters (temperature, pH, DO, and TDS) and stream profile characters (substrates, cross section, canopy cover, and riparian vegetation) were recorded. Species richness and Shannon-Wiener’s index (H′) were calculated and compared for all sites over 10 sampling cycles. The length-frequency relationships of species of freshwater shrimps (Caridina malayensis, Macrobrachium malayanum, M. sundaicum, M. platycheles) and freshwater crabs (Parathelphusa maculata and P. reticulata) were investigated. The highest species diversity was found to occur in the middle and lower reaches of the stream, followed by the upper reaches of the stream, then the outskirts of the swamp. The distribution patterns of the freshwater decapods of the NSSF are discussed and their conservation status is updated.
KeywordsBiodiversity Crab Freshwater Nee Soon Swamp Forest Population Shrimp Singapore
We would like to thank Drs. Lena Chan, Geoffrey Davison and Liong Shie-Yui for their support, Dr. Liong Shie-Yui for the map, Dr. Darren Yeo for his assistance in crab species identification, Drs. Neil Cumberlidge and Tadashi Kawai for comments to improve the manuscript, Mr. Chay Chee Kin, Ms. Munirah Binte Abd Gani and colleagues from the National Biodiversity Centre for their help with field surveys. This study forms part of the Nee Soon Swamp Forest Biodiversity and Hydrology Baseline Studies Project funded by the National Parks Board of Singapore (FC 12302501).
- Cai, Y., Ng, P. K. L., & Choy, S. (2007). Freshwater shrimps of the family Atyidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 55, 277–309.Google Scholar
- Chong, S. S. C., Khoo, H. W., & Ng, P. K. L. (1987). Presence of the Japanese freshwater prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (De Haan, 1849) (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) in Singapore. Zoologische Mededelingen, 61, 313–317.Google Scholar
- Corner, E. J. H. (1978). The freshwater swamp-forest of South Johore and Singapore. Gardens, 4, 336. Bulletin Botanic Gardens, Parks & Recreation Department, Singapore.Google Scholar
- Davison, G. W. H. (2008). The red list categories. In G. W. H. Davison, P. K. L. Ng, & H. C. Ho (Eds.), The Singapore red data book (pp. 1–4). Singapore: Nature Society (Singapore).Google Scholar
- De Grave, S. (2013). Macrobrachium nipponense. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2015.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on July 15, 2015.
- De Grave, S., & Cai, Y. (2013). Caridina malayensis. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2015.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on July 15, 2015.
- De Grave, S., & Wowor, D. (2013). Macrobrachium sundaicum. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2015.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on July 15, 2015.
- De Grave, S., Wowor, D., & Cai, Y. (2013). Macrobrachium platycheles. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2015.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on July 15, 2015.
- De Haan, W. (1833–1850). Crustacea. In P. F. Siebold (Ed.), Fauna Japonica sive Descriptio Animalum, quae in Itinere per Japonium, Jussu et Auspiciis Superiorum, qui Summum in India Batava Imperium Tenet, Suscepto, Annis 1823–1830 Collegit, Notis, Observationibus et Adumbrationibus Illustravit (pp. 1–243). Leiden: Ludguni-Batavorum. (pls. A–J, I–Q, 1–55)Google Scholar
- De Man, J. G. (1879). On some species of the genus Palaemon Fabr. with descriptions of two new forms. Not Royal Zool Mus Netherlands Leyden, 1, 165–184.Google Scholar
- De Man, J. G. (1898). Macrura. Zoological results of the Dutch Scientific Expedition to central Borneo. The crustaceans Part 1. Notes from the Leyden Museum, 20, 137–161. pls. 6–8.Google Scholar
- Esser, L, & Cumberlidge, N (2008a). Parathelphusa reticulata. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2014.3. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on April 20, 2015.
- Esser, L, & Cumberlidge, N (2008b). Irmengardia johnsoni. The IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2015.2. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on July 15, 2015.
- Khoo, C. K. E. (2010). A preliminary study of distribution of freshwater crabs in Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest, Singapore. Undergraduate research opportunities in science project report. National University of Singapore, Department of Biological Sciences, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
- Ng, P. K. L. (1988). The freshwater crabs of peninsular Malaysia and Singapore (pp. 1–156). Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore: Shinglee Press.Google Scholar
- Ng, P. K. L. (1990a). Parathelphusa reticulata spec. nov. a new species of freshwater crab from blackwater swamps in Singapore (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Gecarcinucoidea). Zoologische Mededelingen, 63, 241–254.Google Scholar
- Ng, P. K. L. (1990b). Freshwater crabs and prawns of Singapore. In L. M. Chou & P. K. L. Ng (Eds.), Essays in zoology (pp. 189–204). Singapore: Department of Zoology, National University of Singapore.Google Scholar
- Ng, P. K. L. (1997). The conservation status of freshwater prawns and crabs in Singapore with emphasis on the Nature Reserves. Garden Bulletin Singapore, 49, 267–272.Google Scholar
- Ng, P. K. L., & Yang, C. M. (1985). On three new species of freshwater crabs from Singapore and West Malaysia (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura). Malayan Nature Journ, 39(1), 57–73.Google Scholar
- Nobili, G. (1903). Crostacei di Singapore. Bollettino dei Musei di Zoologia ed Anatomia comparato della R. Universita di Torino, 18(455), 1–39. 1 Pl.Google Scholar
- Ou, A. C. T., & Yeo, D. C. J. (1995). A new species of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium Platycheles (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae) from Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 43, 299–308.Google Scholar
- Roux, J. (1934). New freshwater decapod crustaceans from the Malay Peninsula. Bulletin of the Raffles Museum, 9, 28–34.Google Scholar
- Soh, Z. P. (2011). Report on industrial orientation with national parks board (National Biodiversity Centre). Singapore: Nanyang Technological University.Google Scholar
- Sun, W. S. (2011). Biodiversity assessment of freshwater shrimps and crabs in Nee Soon swamp area, Singapore. Final year project thesis, Nanyang Technological University, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
- Wowor, D., Cai, Y., & Ng, P. K. L. (2004). Freshwater invertebrates of the Malaysian region. In C. M. Yule & H. S. Yong (Eds.), Crustacea: Decapoda, Caridea. Malaysia: Akademi Sains.Google Scholar
- Yeo, D. C. J., Tan, S. H., & Ng, P. K. L. (2008). Decapod crustaceans. In G. W. H. Davison, P. K. L. Ng, & H. C. Ho (Eds.), The Singapore red data book (pp. 110–128). Singapore: Nature Society (Singapore).Google Scholar