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Diversity, Distribution and Conservation of Freshwater Crabs and Shrimps in South America

  • Célio MagalhãesEmail author
  • Martha R. Campos
  • Pablo A. Collins
  • Fernando L. Mantelatto
Chapter

Abstract

South America has a huge diversity of freshwater decapods that occupy a variety of ecosystems including major rivers, lakes, wetlands, and mountain streams. Although large areas of the continent’s freshwater ecosystem are still pristine and well preserved, many decapod species are increasingly impacted by different anthropogenic threats. This chapter focuses on the warm-water freshwater decapods found in the tropical and subtropical regions of South America that include the freshwater crabs (2 families, 34 genera, 209 species) and the freshwater shrimps (5 families, 11 genera, 88 species). The most species rich country for freshwater crabs is Colombia (105 species), followed by Brazil (49 species), and Venezuela (46 species), while the most species rich-country for freshwater shrimps is Venezuela (36 species), followed by Brazil (35 species), and Colombia (30 species). IUCN Red List conservation assessments have been carried out recently on a global scale for both freshwater crabs and shrimps, but national level assessments have so far only been made for the 76 species of Brazilian decapods, which found no threatened species in that country, and only one shrimp, Atya scabra, to be Near Threatened. Comparisons of national and regional assessments with the IUCN global assessments in some South American countries are made, and recommendations for freshwater decapod research in the region are offered.

Keywords

Brachyura Caridea Dendrobranchiata Decapoda Conservation assessment Diversity Endemism IUCN Neotropical region Threatened species 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank the editors (Kawai Tadashi and Neil Cumberlidge) and Ingo Wehrtmann for the invitation to collaborate on this book, Neil Cumberlidge for allowing the use of Figs. 10.1 and 10.2, and Sammy De Grave for revising the English and for comments that improved the text. Two of us (CM and FLM) are grateful to the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq Procs. 491490/2004-6; 490353/2007-0; 473050/2007-2; 302748/2010-5; 490314/2011-2; 471011/2011-8), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP Proc. 2010/50188-8) and Coordenadoria de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES/DAAD Proc. 315/09; Ciências do Mar II Proc. 2005/2014—23038.004308/2014-14), which all provided financial support that ultimately led to the preparation of this chapter. CM and FLM also thank CNPq for an ongoing research grant (Procs. PQ 304736/2015-5 and 304968/2014-5, respectively).

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Célio Magalhães
    • 1
    Email author
  • Martha R. Campos
    • 2
  • Pablo A. Collins
    • 3
  • Fernando L. Mantelatto
    • 4
  1. 1.Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da AmazôniaManausBrazil
  2. 2.Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Nacional de ColombiaBogotá D.CColombia
  3. 3.Instituto Nacional de Limnología, CONICET-UNLCiudad UniversitariaSanta FeArgentina
  4. 4.Laboratory of Bioecology and Systematic of Crustaceans (LBSC), Department of Biology, Faculty of Philosophy, Science and Letters at Ribeirão Preto (FFCLRP)University of São Paulo (USP)Ribeirão PretoBrazil

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