Advertisement

Eudaimonic Growth: The Development of the Goods in Personhood (or: Cultivating a Good Life Story)

  • Jack J. BauerEmail author
Chapter
Part of the International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life book series (IHQL)

Abstract

Eudaimonic growth refers to the development of the varied goods of personhood over time. This chapter summarizes a theory of eudaimonic growth in three parts. In the first section of the chapter we consider a model of a good life that focuses on personhood and its development. In this model, eudaimonic well-being is defined as the wellness of ones being. Hedonic pleasure and eudaimonic meaning are explained as two, irreducible features of a good life. The term “meaning” refers to the canonical goods of eudaimonia, such as wisdom, moral virtue, meaningfulness, self-actualization, and growth. In the second section we examine the idea of eudaimonic growth specifically, distinguishing eudaimonic, humanistic, and organismic value orientations as well as distinguishing growth valued from growth attained. In the third section we consider relations between eudaimonic growth and self-identity. The person who identifies with the idea of eudaimonic growth has what I call a transformative self. I take a narrative perspective on meaning-making and self-identity over time. The person constructs a transformative self in his or her life story, forming a narrative self-identity that features eudaimonic growth as a central theme. Such a life story borrows from cultural master narratives of eudaimonic growth, both reflecting and fostering cultural ideals of the good within the person’s life. We consider limitations of the person’s physical and social conditions that hinder one’s actualizing these ideals for eudaimonic growth. Finally, self-actualizing is presented as the development of self-authorship from independence to authenticity in a process of psychosocial maturation.

Keywords

Happiness Wellbeing Eudaimonia Eudaimonic growth Meaning Self Identity 

References

  1. Adler, J. M. (2012). Living into the story: Agency and coherence in a longitudinal study of narrative identity development and mental health over the course of psychotherapy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102, 367–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, J. M., Lodi-Smith, J., Philippe, F. L., & Houle, I. (2016). The incremental validity of narrative identity in predicting well-being: A review of the field and recommendations for the future. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 20, 142–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ardelt, M. (2003). Empirical assessment of a three-dimensional wisdom scale. Research on Aging, 23, 275–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakan, D. (1966). The duality of human existence: Isolation and communion in Western man. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bauer, J. J. (2016). The transformative self: Identity, growth, and a good life story: A theory of eudaimonic personality development. New York: Oxford University. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  7. Bauer, J. J., & Bonanno, G. A. (2001). Doing and being well (for the most part): Adaptive patterns of narrative self-evaluation during bereavement. Journal of Personality, 69, 451–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bauer, J. J., & DesAutels, P. (in press). Eudaimonia Cosmopolitan: Toward an integrative, developmental model of a good life. In E. Nelson (Ed.), Naturalism and Asian Philosophy: Owen Flanagan and Beyond. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bauer, J. J., & McAdams, D. P. (2004a). Growth goals, maturity, and well-being. Developmental Psychology, 40, 114–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bauer, J. J., & McAdams, D. P. (2004b). Personal growth in adults’ stories of life transitions. Journal of Personality, 72, 573–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bauer, J. J., & McAdams, D. P. (2010). Eudaimonic growth: Narrative growth goals predict increases in ego development and subjective well-being three years later. Developmental Psychology, 46, 761–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bauer, J. J., McAdams, D. P., & Pals, J. L. (2008). Narrative identity and eudaimonic well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 81–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bauer, J. J., McAdams, D. P., & Sakaeda, A. R. (2005). Interpreting the good life: Growth memories in the lives of mature, happy people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 203–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bauer, J. J., & Park, S. W. (2010). Growth isn’t just for the young: Growth narratives, eudaimonic resilience, and the aging self. In P. S. Frye & C. L. M. Keyes (Eds.), Frontiers of resilient aging (pp. 60–89). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bauer, J. J., Park, S. W., Montoya, R. M., & Wayment, H. A. (2015). Growth motivation toward two facets of eudaimonic self-development. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 185–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baumeister, R. F. (1991). Meanings of life. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  17. Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., Aaker, J. L., & Garbinsky, E. N. (2013). Some key differences between a happy life and a meaningful life. Journal of Positive Psychology, 8, 505–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Berlin, I. (1969). Two essays on liberty. Oxford: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  19. Bhatia, S. (2007). American karma: Race, culture, and identity in the Indian diaspora. New York: New York University.Google Scholar
  20. Brandtstadter, J. (1999). The self in action and development: Cultural, biosocial, and onogenetic bases of intentional self-development. In J. Brandtstadter & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Action and self-development: Theory and research through the life span (pp. 37–66). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brockmeier, J. (2000). Autobiographical time. Narrative Inquiry, 10, 51–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  23. Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  24. Bryant, F. B. (2003). Savoring Beliefs Inventory (SBI): A scale for measuring beliefs about savouring. Journal of Mental Health, 12, 175–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Campbell, J. (1948/1972). The hero with a thousand faces. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.Google Scholar
  26. Carter, T. J., & Gilovich, T. (2010). The relative relativity of material and experiential purchases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 146–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chang, E. (2009). An examination of optimism, pessimism, and performance perfectionism as predictors of positive psychological functioning in middle-aged adults: Does holding high standards of performance matter beyond generalized outcome expectancies? Cognitive Therapy Research, 33, 334–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cohn, L. D. (1998). Age trends in personality development: A quantitative review. In P. M. Westenberg, A. Blasi, & L. D. Cohn (Eds.), Personality development: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical investigations of Loevinger’s conception of ego development (pp. 133–143). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Crocker, J., & Canevello, A. (2008). Creating and undermining support in communal relationships: The role of compassionate and self-image goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 555–575.Google Scholar
  30. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The what and why of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.Google Scholar
  31. DesAutels, P. (2009). Resisting organizational power. In L. Tessman (Ed.), Feminist ethics and social and political philosophy: Theorizing the non-ideal (pp. 223–236). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larson, R. J., & Griffen, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., & Scollon, C. N. (2006). Beyond the hedonic treadmill: Revising the adaptation theory of well-being. American Psychologist, 61, 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dunlop, W. L., & Tracy, J. L. (2013). Sobering stories: Narratives of self-redemption predict behavioral change and improved health among recovering alcoholics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 576–590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dunlop, W. L., & Walker, L. J. (2013). The life story: Its development and relation to narration and personal identity. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 37, 235–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 501–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Erikson, E. H. (1950/1994). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  38. Erikson, E. H. (1968/1994). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  39. Flanagan, O. (1991). Varieties of moral personality: Ethics and psychological realism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  40. Flanagan, O. F. (2011). The bodhisattva’s brain: Buddhism naturalized. Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  41. Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Updated thinking on positivity ratios. American Psychologist, 68, 814–822.Google Scholar
  42. Goldstein, K. (1939). The organism, a holistic approach to biology derived from pathological data in man. New York: American Book Company.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Graham, J., Nosek, B. A., Haidt, J., Iyer, R., Koleva, S., & Ditto, P. H. (2011). Mapping the moral domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 366–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hammack, P. L. (2011). Narrative and the politics of identity: The cultural psychology of Israeli and Palestinian youth. New York: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  45. Hammack, P. L., Thompson, E. M., & Pilecki, A. (2009). Configurations of identity among sexual minority youth: Context, desire, and narrative. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 867–883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Haybron, D. (2008). The pursuit of unhappiness. New York: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  47. Huta, V. (2013). Pursuing eudaimonia versus hedonia: Distinctions, similarities, and relationships. In A. S. Waterman (Ed.), The best within us: Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonic functioning (pp. 139–158). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Huta, V., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Pursuing pleasure or virtue: The differential and overlapping well-being benefits of hedonic and eudaimonic motives. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 735–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. James, W. (1890/1950). Principles of psychology, vol. 2. New York: Dover.Google Scholar
  50. James, W. (1907/1909/1978). Pragmatism and the meaning of truth (A. J., Ayer, Ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  51. Jeffers, T. J. (2005). Apprenticeships: The bildungsroman from Goethe to Santayana. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kashdan, T. B., Biswas-Diener, R., & King, L. A. (2008). Reconsidering happiness: The costs of distinguishing between hedonics and eudaimonia. Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 219–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kasser, T. (2002). The high price of materialism. Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  54. Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Well-being correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 281–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  56. Kelly, G. A. (1955). A theory of personality: The psychology of personal constructs. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  57. Keltner, D. (2010). The compassionate instinct. In D. Keltner, J. Marsh, & J. A. Smith (Eds.), The compassionate instinct: The science of human goodness (pp. 8–15). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  58. Keyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61, 121–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Keyes, C. L. M., Schmotkin, D., & Ryff, C. D. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 1007–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. King, L. A., & Napa, C. K. (1998). What makes a life good? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 156–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. King, L. A., & Smith, N. G. (2004). Gay and straight possible selves: Goals, identity, subjective well-being, and personality development. Journal of Personality, 72, 967–994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Labouvie-Vief, G. (2003). Dynamic integration: Affect, cognition, and the self in adulthood. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 201–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Labouvie-Vief, G. (2006). Emerging structures of adult thought. In J. J. Arnett & J. L. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  64. Leary, M. R., & Tangney, J. P. (2005). The self as an organizing construct in the behavioral and social sciences. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 3–14). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  65. Lilgendahl, J. P., Helson, R., & John, O. P. (2013). Does ego development increase during midlife? The effects of openness and accommodative processing of difficult events. Journal of Personality, 81, 403–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lilgendahl, J. P., & McAdams, D. P. (2011). Constructing stories of self-growth: How individual differences in patterns of autobiographical reasoning relate to well-being in midlife. Journal of Personality, 79, 391–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lodi-Smith, J., Geise, A. C., Roberts, B. W., & Robins, R. W. (2009). Narrating personality change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 679–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Loevinger, J. (1976). Ego development. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  69. Maslow, A. H. (1968). Toward a psychology of being. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  70. May, R. (1969/2007). Love and will. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  71. McAdams, D. P. (1993). The stories we live by: Personal myths and the making of the self. New York: Morrow.Google Scholar
  72. McAdams, D. P. (1995). What do we know when we know a person? Journal of Personality, 63, 365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. McAdams, D. P. (2006). The redemptive self: Stories Americans live by. New York: Oxford University.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McAdams, D. P. (2008). Personal narratives and the life story. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 242–262). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  75. McAdams, D. P. (2013). The psychological self as actor, agent, and author. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 272–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McAdams, D. P., & de St. Aubin, E. (1992). A theory of generativity and its assessment through self-report, behavioral acts, and narrative themes in autobiography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 1003–1015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McAdams, D. P., Hoffman, B. J., Mansfield, E. D., & Day, R. (1996). Themes of agency and communion in significant autobiographical scenes. Journal of Personality, 64, 339–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McAdams, D. P., & Pals, J. L. (2006). A new big five: Fundamental principles for an integrative science of personality. American Psychologist, 61, 204–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. McAdams, D. P., Reynolds, J., Lewis, M., Patten, A. H., & Bowman, P. J. (2001). When bad things turn good and good things turn bad: Sequences of redemption and contamination in life narrative and their relation to psychosocial adaption in midlife adults and in students. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 474–485.Google Scholar
  80. McGregor, I., McAdams, D. P., & Little, B. R. (2006). Personal projects, life stories, and happiness: On being true to traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 551–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. McLean, K. C. (2008). Stories of the young and the old: Personal continuity and narrative identity. Developmental Psychology, 44, 254–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McLean, K. C., Pasupathi, M., & Pals, J. L. (2007). Selves creating stories creating selves: A process model of self-development. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 262–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Murray, H. A. (1938/2007). Explorations in personality. (Dan P. McAdams, Ed.). New York: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  84. Nozick, R. (1983). Philosophical explanations. Cambridge, MA: Belknap.Google Scholar
  85. Nussbaum, M. C. (1998). Women and human development: The capabilities approach. New York: Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  86. Nussbaum, M. C. (2011). Creating capabilities: A human development approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pals, J. L. (2006). Narrative identity processing of difficult life experiences: Pathways of personality development and positive self-transformation in adulthood. Journal of Personality, 74, 1079–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Pasupathi, M. (2001). The social construction of the personal past and its implications for adult development. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 651–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pasupathi, M., & Mansour, E. (2006). Adult age differences in autobiographical reasoning in narratives. Developmental Psychology, 42, 798–808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pennebaker, J. W., & Seagal, J. D. (1999). Forming a story: The health benefits of narrative. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 1243–1254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Riceour, P. (1990). Time and narrative, vol. 3. (K. Blamey & D. Pallauer, Trans.)Google Scholar
  92. Robitschek, C. (1998). Personal growth initiative: The construct and its measure. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 30, 183–198.Google Scholar
  93. Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  94. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 719–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 13–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sawyer, R. K. (2005). Social emergence: Societies as complex systems. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schlegel, R. J., Hicks, J. A., Arndt, J., & King, L. A. (2009). Thine own self: True self-concept accessibility and meaning in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96, 473–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schultheiss, O. C., Yankova, D., Dirlikov, B., & Schad, D. J. (2009). Are implicit and explicit motive measures statistically independent? A fair and balanced test using the picture story exercise and a cue- and response-matched questionnaire measure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91, 72–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schwartz, S. (2007). Universalism and the inclusiveness of our moral universe. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38, 711–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Schwartz, S. H., & Bilsky, W. (1990). Toward a theory of the universal content and structure of values: Extensions and cross-cultural replications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 678–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sedikides, C., & Hepper, E. G. D. (2009). Self-improvement. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3(6), 899–917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sheldon, K. M. (2004). Optimal human being. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  104. Sheldon, K. M. (2013). Individual daimon, universal needs, and subjective well-being: Happiness as the natural consequence of a life well lived. In A. S. Waterman (Ed.), The best within us: Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonic functioning (pp. 207–226). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  105. Sheldon, K. M., & Houser-Marko, L. (2001). Self-concordance, goal attainment, and the pursuit of happiness: Can there be an upward spiral? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 152–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (1995). Coherence and congruence: Two aspects of personality integration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68, 531–543.Google Scholar
  107. Sheldon, K. M., & Kasser, T. (2001). Getting older, getting better? Personal strivings and psychosocial maturity across the life-span. Developmental Psychology, 34, 491–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Rawsthorne, L. J., & Ilardi, B. (1997). Trait self and true self: Cross-role variation in the big-five personality traits and its relations with psychological authenticity and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1380–1393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Staudinger, U. M., Dörner, J., & Mickler, C. (2005). Wisdom and personality. In R. J. Sternberg & J. Jordan (Eds.), A handbook of wisdom: Psychological perspectives (pp. 191–219). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). The meaning in life questionnaire: Assessing the presence of and search for meaning in life. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 80–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Steger, M. F., Yeon Shin, J., Shim, Y., & Fitch-Martin, A. (2013). Is meaning in life a flagship indicator of well-being? In A. S. Waterman (Ed.), The best within us: Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonic functioning (pp. 159–182). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Suedfeld, P., & Bluck, S. (1993). Changes in integrative complexity accompanying significant life events: Historical evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 124–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sumner, L. W. (1996). Welfare, happiness, & ethics. New York: Oxford University.Google Scholar
  114. Tackett, J. L., Herzhoff, K., Kushner, S. C., & Rule, N. (2016). Thin slices of child personality: Perceptual, situational, and behavioral contributions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110, 150–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Tadmor, C. T., Tetlock, P. E., & Peng, K. (2007). Acculturation strategies and integrative complexity: The cognitive implications of biculturalism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40, 105–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Tay, L., & Diener, D. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being around the world. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 354–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Taylor, C. (1989). Sources of the self: The making of the modern identity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  118. Thorne, A. (2004). Putting the person into social identity. Human Development, 47, 361–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Thrash, T. M., Elliot, A. J., & Schultheiss, O. C. (2007). Methodological and dispositional predictors of congruence between implicit and explicit need for achievement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 961–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Tiberius, V. (2008). The reflective life: Living wisely within our limits. New York: Oxford University.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tiberius, V. (2013). Recipes for a good life: Eudaimonia and the contribution of philosophy. In A. S. Waterman (Ed.), The best within us: Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonic functioning (pp. 19–38). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Tiberius, V. (2014). How theories of well-being can help us. Journal of Practical Ethics, 2, 1–19.Google Scholar
  123. Vallerand, R. J. (2008). On the psychology of passion: In search of what makes people’s lives most worth living. Canadian Psychology, 49, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Van Boven, L., & Gilovich, T. (2003). To do or to have? That is the question. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 1193–1302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Vittersø, J. (2013). Feelings, meanings, and optimal functioning: Some distinctions between hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. In A. S. Waterman (Ed.), The best within us: Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonia (pp. 39–56). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Warren, J. (2009). Removing fear. In J. Warren (Ed.), The Cambridge companion to epicureanism (pp. 234–248). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Waterman, A. S. (2005). When effort is enjoyed: Two studies of intrinsic motivation for personally salient activities. Motivation and Emotion, 29, 165–188.Google Scholar
  128. Waterman, A. S., & Schwartz, S. J. (2013). Eudaimonic identity theory. In A. S. Waterman (Ed.), The best within us: Positive psychology perspectives on eudaimonia (pp. 99–118). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Waterman, A. S., Schwartz, S. J., & Conti, R. (2008). The implications of two conceptions of happiness (hedonic enjoyment and eudaimonia) for the understanding of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 41–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wayment, H. A., Bauer, J. J., & Sylaska, K. (2015). The quiet ego scale: Measuring the compassionate self-identity. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16, 999–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wirtz, D., Kruger, J., Scollon, C. N., & Diener, E. (2003). What to do on spring break? The role of predicted, on-line, and remembered experience in future choice. Psychological Science, 14, 520–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Wolf, S. (2010). Meaning in life and why it matters. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of DaytonDaytonUSA

Personalised recommendations