Advertisement

Co-management of Protected Areas (PA): A Paradigm Shift in PA Management

  • Tapan Kumar NathEmail author
  • Mohammed Jashimuddin
  • Makoto Inoue
Chapter
Part of the World Forests book series (WFSE, volume 22)

Abstract

Since 2004, initially the Nishorgo Support Project (NSP) and later Integrated Protected Area Co-management (IPAC) project in collaboration with Bangladesh forest department (FD) have been implementing protected areas (PA) co-management in Bangladesh that aimed to protect rapidly deteriorating forest biodiversity of the country. Drawing on data from the Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS), in this chapter we examined peoples’ dependency on forest resources of CWS, forest health conditions, functions of co-management structure at local level, and impact on forest conservation. Household and forest trail surveys show that local people are heavily dependent on CWS’s forests for own use and income. Local people clear forestland for betel leaf cultivation, sungrass production, and other agricultural practices. Forest vegetation survey recorded 93 tree species with a density of 239 trees/ha of which seven (07) exotic species contributed 60 %. Nearly 90 % trees belong to 5–15 cm dbh (diameter at breast height) producing a minimum biomass of 33.3 tree/ha. We observed a four-tier co-management governance structure at local level consisted of village conservation forums (VCF), peoples’ forums (PF), community patrol groups (CPG), and co-management committee (CMC) with each component having their own functions. We found a lack of coordination among local-level co-management structure, NSP, IPAC, and FD. Although CMC was empowered by a government order to perform PA management-related functions, NSP or IPAC took all managerial decisions. In official documents, there was existence of VCF, but we noticed no activities during baseline survey although later on they were involved in GIZ project. The gap between promises and actual provisions had created distrust between CPG and others (CMC, NSP, IPAC, and FD). However, CPG’s continuous patrolling reduced the incidence of illegal logging and the CWS is regaining its old forest growth. We recommend several policy implications for reducing misunderstandings among stakeholders and to ensure sustainability of PA co-management in CWS.

Keywords

Forest Department Community Forestry Indeximportance Value Index Betel Leaf Acacia Hybrid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Armitage D, Berkes F, Doubleday N (2007) Introduction: moving beyond co-management. In: Armitage D, Berkes F, Doubleday N (eds) Adaptive co-management: collaboration, learning, and multi-level governance. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  2. Begum R (2011) People’s livelihoods and involvement in co-management of Madhupur National Park, Bangladesh. A paper presented at 13th biennial conference of the international association for the study of the commons held in Hyderabad, India. Accessed 10–14 Jan 2011Google Scholar
  3. Berkes F (2009) Evolution of co-management: role of knowledge generation, bridging organizations and social learning. J Environ Manag 90:1692–1702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. BFD (Bangladesh Forest Department) (2015) Bangladesh wildlife master plan 2015–2035. Strengthening reginal cooperation for wildlife protection project (SRCWP). Bangladesh forest department, ministry of environment and forests, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Draft version, p 198. Accessed 4 May 2015Google Scholar
  5. Biswas SR, Misbahuzzaman K (2008) Tree species diversity and regeneration traits of the dominant species in a dipterocarp forest in Bangladesh: implications for conservation. Int J Biodivers Sci Manag 4(2):81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Borah N, Garkoti SC (2011) Tree species composition, diversity and regeneration patterns in undisturbed and disturbed forests of Barak valley, South Assam, India. Int J Ecol Environ Sci 37(3):131–141Google Scholar
  7. Borrini-Feyerabend G, Farvar MT, Nguinguiri JC, Ndangang VA (2000) Co-management of natural resources: organising, negotiating and learning-by-doing. GTZ and IUCN, Kasparek Verlag, Germany, Reprinted in 2007Google Scholar
  8. Brown S (1997) Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests: a primer. FAO forestry paper 134. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  9. Carlssona L, Berkes F (2005) Co-management: concepts and methodological implications. J Environ Manag 75:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caruso E (2011) Co-management redux: anti-politics and transformation in the Ashaninka Communal Reserve, Peru. Int J Herit Stud 17:608–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chaturvedi NA, Khanna S (1982) Forest mensuration. International Book Distributions, DehradunGoogle Scholar
  12. Chowdhury MSH, Koike M (2010) An overview on the protected area system for forest conservation in Bangladesh. J For Res 21:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chowdhury MSH, Koike M, Rana MP, Muhammed N (2013) Community development through collaborative management of protected areas: evidence from Bangladesh with a case of Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary. Int J Sustain Dev World Ecol 20:63–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chuenpagdee R, Jentoft S (2007) Step zero for fisheries co-management: what precedes implementation. Mar Policy 31:657–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chunati and Jaldi Forest Range (2011) Information was collected from Chunati and Jaldi forest range office on 20.06.2011. Chunati, Chittagong, BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  16. DeCosse PJ, Mazumder AH, Sharma RA, Ahmad IU, Thompson PM (2012a) Introduction. In: DeCosse PJ, Thompson PM, Ahmad IU, Sharma RA, Mazumder AH (eds) Protected area co-management where people and poverty intersect: lessons from Nishorgo in Bangladesh. United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Dhaka, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  17. DeCosse PJ, Thompson PM, Ahmad IU, Sharma RA, Mazumder AH (eds) (2012b) Protected area co-management where people and poverty intersect: lessons from Nishorgo in Bangladesh. United States Agency for International Development (USAID), DhakaGoogle Scholar
  18. DeCosse PJ, Mazumder AH, Roy MK (2012c) The conservation context in 2003. In: DeCosse PJ, Thompson PM, Ahmad IU, Sharma RA, Mazumder AH (eds) Protected area co-management where people and poverty intersect: lessons from Nishorgo in Bangladesh. United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Dhaka, pp 17–27Google Scholar
  19. DeCosse PJ, Sharma RA, Dutta U, Thompson PM (2012d) Development of the collaborative governance model. In: DeCosse PJ, Thompson PM, Ahmad IU, Sharma RA, Mazumder AH (eds) Protected area co-management where people and poverty intersect: lessons from Nishorgo in Bangladesh. United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Dhaka, pp 53–71Google Scholar
  20. Feroz SM, Alam MR, Das P, Mamun AA (2014) Community ecology and spatial distribution of trees in a tropical wet evergreen forest in Kaptai national park in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh. J For Res 25(2):311–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) (2015) Final report of the final survey of indicators of “management of natural resources and community forestry project (MNRCF-Chunati)” in Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary (CWS), Chittagong, Bangladesh. GIZ, DhakaGoogle Scholar
  22. GoB (Government of Bangladesh) (2004) National biodiversity strategy and action plan for bangladesh. ministry of environment and forests, government of the People’s Republic of BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  23. Htun NZ, Mizoue N, Yoshida S (2011) Tree species composition and diversity at different levels of disturbance in Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. Biotropica 43(5):597–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jones N, Clark JRA, Panteli M, Proikaki M, Dimitrakopoulos PG (2012) Local social capital and the acceptance of protected area policies: an empirical study of two Ramsar river delta ecosystems in northern Greece. J Environ Manag 96:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kideghesho JR, Mtoni PE (2008) The potentials for co-management approaches in western Serengeti, Tanzania. Trop Conserv Sci 1:334–358Google Scholar
  26. Kohli RK, Singh HP, Rani D (1996) Status of floor vegetation under some monoculture and mix culture plantations in North India. J For Res 1:205–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kruse J, Klein D, Braund S, Moorehead L, Simeone B (1998) Co-management of natural resources: a comparison of two caribou management systems. Hum Organ 57:447–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Margalef R (1958) Information theory in ecology. Gen Syst 3:36–71Google Scholar
  29. Mazumder AH, Thompson PM (2012) Genesis of the Nishorgo forest co-management experiment. In: DeCosse PJ, Thompson PM, Ahmad IU, Sharma RA, Mazumder AH (eds) Protected area co-management where people and poverty intersect: lessons from Nishorgo in Bangladesh. United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Dhaka, pp 29–50Google Scholar
  30. Michael P (1990) Ecological methods for field and laboratory investigation. Tata McGraw Hill, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  31. Ming’ate FLM (2012) Potential for co-management approaches to strengthen livelihoods of forest dependent communities: A case study of the Arabuko-Sokoke forest reserve, Kenya. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis. Lincoln University, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  32. MoEF (Ministry of Forest and Environment) (2009) Government order issued on 3rd December 2009 by ministry of environment and forests regarding co-management committee for protected area management (in Bengali only). p 3Google Scholar
  33. Moore PD, Chapman SB (1986) Method in plant ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  34. Mukul SA, Uddin MB, Uddin MS, Khan MASA, Marzan B (2008) Protected areas of Bangladesh: current status and efficacy for biodiversity conservation. Proc Pakistan Acad Sci 45:59–68Google Scholar
  35. Nath TK, Inoue M (2008) How does local governance affect projects’ outcomes? Experience from a participatory forestry project of Bangladesh? Int J Agri Res Govern Ecol 7(6):491–506Google Scholar
  36. NSP (Nishorgo Support Project) (2008) Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions through co-management of Chunoti wildlife sanctuary. Forest department and Bangladesh forest research institute. Ministry of environment and forest, government of BangladeshGoogle Scholar
  37. Nursey-Bray M, Rist P (2009) Co-management and protected area management: achieving effective management of a contested site, lessons from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). Mar Policy 33:118–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ostrom E (2005) Understanding institutional diversity. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  39. Panda PC, Mahapatra AK, Acharya PK, Debata AK (2013) Plant diversity in tropical deciduous forests of Eastern Ghats, India: a landscape level assessment. Int J Biodivers Conserv 5(10):625–639Google Scholar
  40. Pielou EC (1966) Species diversity and pattern diversity in the study of ecological succession. J Theor Biol 10:370–383CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Plummer R (2009) The adaptive co-management process: an initial synthesis of representative models and influential variables. Ecol Soc 14(2):24. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss2/art24/
  42. Plummer R, Armitage D (2007) A resilience-based framework for evaluating adaptive co-management: linking ecology, economics and society in a complex world. Ecol Econ 61:62–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Plummer R, Baird J (2013) Adaptive co-management for climate change adaptation considerations for the Barents region. Sustainability 5:629–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Plummer R, Fennell DA (2009) Managing protected areas for sustainable tourism: prospects for adaptive co-management. J Sustain Tour 17:149–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Plummer R, FitzGibbon J (2006) People matter: the importance of social capital in the co management of natural resources. Nat Res Forum 30:51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Plummer R, Hashimoto A (2011) Adaptive co-management and the need for situated thinking in collaborative conservation. Hum Dim Wildl: Int J 16(4):222–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Plummer R, Crona B, Armitage DR, Olsson P, Tengö M, Yudina O (2012) Adaptive co-management: a systematic review and analysis. Ecol Soc 17(3):11. doi: 10.5751/ES-04952-170311 Google Scholar
  48. Sagar R, Pandey A, Singh JS (2012) Composition, species diversity, and biomass of the herbaceous community in dry tropical forest of northern India in relation to soil moisture and light intensity. Environmentalist 32:485–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sarker AHMR, Røskaft E (2011) Human attitudes towards the conservation of protected areas: a case study from four protected areas in Bangladesh. Oryx 45:391–400Google Scholar
  50. Simpsons EH (1949) Measurement of diversity. Nature 163:688Google Scholar
  51. Sultana A, Hussain MS, Rathore D (2014) Diversity of tree vegetation of Rajasthan, India. Trop Ecol 55(3):403–410Google Scholar
  52. Tadele D, Lulekal E, Damtie D, Assefa A (2014) Floristic diversity and regeneration status of woody plants in Zengena forest, a remnant montane forest patch in northwestern Ethiopia. J For Res 25(2):329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tripathi OP, Tripathi RS (2010) Community composition, structure and management of subtropical vegetation of forests in Meghalaya State, northeast India. Int J Biodivers Sci Ecosyst Serv Manag 6(3–4):157–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2013) Chunoti co-management committee, Bangladesh. Equator initiative case study series. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Zurba M, Ross H, Izurieta A, Rist P, Bock E, Berkes F (2012) Building co-management as a process: problem solving through partnerships in aboriginal country, Australia. Environ Manag 49:1130–1142CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tapan Kumar Nath
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohammed Jashimuddin
    • 2
  • Makoto Inoue
    • 3
  1. 1.School of BiosciencesUniversity of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute of Forestry and Environmental SciencesUniversity of ChittagongChittagongBangladesh
  3. 3.Graduate School of Agricultural and Life SciencesThe University of TokyoBunkyo-kuJapan

Personalised recommendations