How Can We Stay Safe?

  • Claus GrupenEmail author
  • Mark Rodgers


In the early days of the study of radioactivity the concept of ‘radiation protection’ did not even exist (and there were certainly no ‘radiation-protection officers’!). Physicists like Becquerel , Curie and Hahn handled relatively large quantities of radioactive substances with their bare hands. In addition to this, any radioactive material given off as gas or airborne dust was frequently inhaled. Even today the logbooks of Marie and Pierre Curie are contaminated by radium (half-life 1600 years), and they can only be loaned out from the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris with special conditions.


Radioactive Waste Nuclear Waste Radioactive Material Proton Irradiation Radioactive Substance 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of SiegenSiegenGermany
  2. 2.Bluesmith Information SystemsLeedsUK

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