Tactile Apparent Movement as a Modality for Lower Limb Haptic Feedback

  • Daniel K. Y. Chen
  • Junkai Xu
  • Peter B. Shull
  • Thor F. Besier
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9775)


Wearable haptic technology has been shown to be effective for motion training and rehabilitation. However, one challenge is providing multiple intuitive tactile feedback during walking and hence new feedback methods need to be explored. Experiments were conducted to explore the use of tactile apparent movement on the lower extremity and its feasibility as a feedback modality. Optimal stimulus duration and inter-stimulus onset interval (ISOI) combinations were determined. We obtained the optimal mean ISOIs at six different stimulus durations (from 100–200 ms) and then measured the subjects’ left and right perception accuracy and response times when those stimuli were presented in a randomized trial during standing and walking. This study shows that apparent movement can be an effective feedback modality during walking achieving accuracies of ~100 % and low response times of <1010 ms, given the optimal stimulus.


Tactile apparent movement Lower limb haptic feedback Phi illusion Gait retraining 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel K. Y. Chen
    • 1
  • Junkai Xu
    • 2
  • Peter B. Shull
    • 2
  • Thor F. Besier
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Auckland Bioengineering Institute (*Biomimetics Lab)University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical EngineeringShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Department of Engineering ScienceUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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