Advertisement

Potential Herbal Anxiolytics

  • Erica McIntyre
  • David A. Camfield
  • Jerome Sarris
Chapter

Abstract

The following substances also have a long traditional history of use, however not necessarily in the treatment of anxiety. These herbs have been included as they have demonstrated some clinical evidence and may be considered as potential treatments for anxiety. It is recommended that future studies further investigate these substances in order to determine their efficacy in the treatment of anxiety.
  • Milk thistle (Silybum marianum)

  • Iranian borage (Echium amoenum)

  • Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium)

  • Echinacea (Echinacea spp.)

Keywords

Elevated Plus Maze Anxiolytic Effect Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Compulsive Symptom Milk Thistle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Paul A, Cox PA. An ethnobotanical survey of the uses for Citrus aurantium (Rutaceae) in Haiti. Econ Bot. 1995;49(3):249–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Carvalho-Freitas MIR, Costa M. Anxiolytic and sedative effects of extracts and essential oil from Citrus Aurantium L. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002;25(12):1629–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goes TC, Antunes FD, Alves PB, Teixeira-Silva F. Effect of sweet orange aroma on experimental anxiety in humans. J Altern Complement Med. 2012;18(8):798–804.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Namazi M, Akbari SAA, Mojab F, Talebi A, Majd HA, Jannesaria S. Effects of Citrus Aurantium (Bitter Orange) on the severity of first-stage labor pain. Iran J Pharm Res. 2014;13(3):1011–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Namazi M, Amir Ali Akbari S, Mojab F, Talebi A, Alavi Majd H, Jannesari S. Aromatherapy with Citrus aurantium oil and anxiety during the first stage of labor. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014;16(6):e18371.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cho MY, Min ES, Hur MH, Lee MS. Effects of aromatherapy on the anxiety, vital signs, and sleep quality of percutaneous coronary intervention patients in intensive care units. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med eCAM. 2013;2013:381381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M. A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine. Int J Med Sci. 2012;9(7):527–38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Costa CA, Cury TC, Cassettari BO, Takahira RK, Flório JC, Costa M. Citrus aurantium L. essential oil exhibits anxiolytic- like activity mediated by 5-HT1A-receptors andreduces cholesterol after repeated oral treatment. BMC Complementary Altern Med. 2013;13(42):1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pultrini Ade M, Galindo LA, Costa M. Effects of the essential oil from Citrus aurantium L. in experimental anxiety models in mice. Life Sci. 2006;78(15):1720–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leite MP, Fassin Jr J, Baziloni F, Almeida RN, Mattei R, Leite JR. Behavioral effects of essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. inhalation in rats. Braz J Pharmacognosy. 2008;18(Supp):661–6.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Khosravi M, Khakpour S, Adibi L, Jahromy MH. A study of the effect of Citrus aurantium L. essential oil on anxiety and its interaction with GABAergic pathways in male mice. J Behav Brain Sci. 2014;04(10):470–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Akhlaghi M, Shabanian G, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Parvin N, Saadat M. Citrus aurantium blossom and preoperative anxiety. RevBrasAnestesiol. 2011;61(6):702–12.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Haller J, Freund TF, Pelczer KG, Furedi J, Krecsak L, Zambori J. The anxiolytic potential and psychotropic side effects of an echinacea preparation in laboratory animals and healthy volunteers. Phytother Res. 2013;27(1):54–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kindscher K. Ethnobotany of purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia, Astraceae) and other echinacea species. Econ Bot. 1989;43(4):498–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Woelkart K, Baur R. The role of alkamides as an active principle of echinacea. Planta Med. 2007;73:615–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tambaro S, Bortolato M. Cannabinoid-related agents in the treatment of anxiety disorders: current knowledge and future perspectives. CNS Drugs Discov. 2012;7(1):25–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hájos N, Holderith N, Németh B, Papp OI, Szabó GG, Zemankovics R, et al. The effects of an echinacea preparation on synaptic transmission and the firing properties of CA1 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus. Phytother Res. 2012;26(3):354–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Haller J, Hohmann J, Freund TF. The effect of Echinacea preparations in three laboratory tests of anxiety: comparison with chlordiazepoxide. Phytother Res. 2010;24(11):1605–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rabbani M, Sajjadi SE, Khalili S. A lack of tolerance to the anxiolytic action of Echium amoenum. Res Pharm Sci. 2011;6(2):101–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gholamzadeh S, Zare S, Ikhanipoor M. Anxiolytic effect of Echium amoenum during different treatment courses. Res Biol Sci. 2008;3(2):176–8.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gholamzadeh S, Zare S, Ilkhanipoor M. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effect of Echium amoenum petalsextract, during chronic treatment in rat. Res Pharm Sci. 2007;2(2):91–5.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rabbani M, Sajjadi SE, Vaseghi G, Jafarian A. Anxiolytic effects of Echium amoenum on the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety in mice. Fitoterapia. 2004;75(5):457–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shafaghi B, Naderi N, Tahmasb L, Kamalinejad M. Anxiolytic effect of Echium amoenum L. in Mice. Iran J Pharm Res. 2002;1:37–41.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sayyah M, Boostani H, Pakseresht S, Malaieri A. Efficacy of aqueous extract of Echium amoenum in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009;33(8):1513–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sayyah M, Siahpoosh A, Khalili H, Malaieri A, Samaee H. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the aqueous extract ofEchium amoenum for patients with general anxiety disorder. Iran J Pharm Res. 2012;11(2):697–701.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sayyah M, Sayyah M, Kamalinejad M. A preliminary randomized double blind clinical trial on the efficacy ofaqueous extract of Echium amoenum in the treatment of mild to moderatemajor depression. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2006;30:166–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Abenavoli L, Capasso R, Milic N, Capasso F. Milk thistle in liver diseases: past, present, future. Phytother Res. 2010;24(10):1423–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bahmani M, Shirzad H, Rafieian S, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Silybum marianum: beyond Hepatoprotection. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2015;20(4):292–301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King’s American dispensatory. 1898.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mosaddegh M, Naghibi F, Moazzeni H, Pirani A, Esmaeili S. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal remedies traditionally used in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad province of Iran. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141(1):80–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kroll DJ, Shaw HS, Oberlies NH. Milk thistle nomenclature: why it matters in cancer research and pharmacokinetic studies. Integr Cancer Ther. 2007;6(2):110–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Osuchowski MF, Johnson VJ, He Q, Sharma RP. Alterations in regional brain neurotransmitters by silymarin, a natural antioxidant flavonoid mixture, in BALB/c mice. Pharmaceutical Biol. 2004;42(4–5):384–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lu P, Mamiya T, Lu L, Mouri A, Niwa M, Kim HC, et al. Silibinin attenuates cognitive deficits and decreases of dopamine and serotonin induced by repeated methamphetamine treatment. Behav Brain Res. 2010;207(2):387–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mazzio EA, Harris N, Soliman KFA. Food constituents attenuate monoamine oxidase activity and peroxide levels in C6 astrocyte cells. Planta Medica. 1998;64(7):603–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Solati J, Yaghmaei P, Mohammdadi K. Role of the 5-HT1A serotonergic system in anxiolytic-like effects of Silymarin. Neurophysiol. 2012;44(1):49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sayyah M, Boostani H, Pakseresht S, Malayeri A. Comparison of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. with fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive−compulsive disorder. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010;34(2):362–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gordon A, Hobbs DA, Bowden DS, Bailey MJ, Mitchell J, Francis AJP, et al. Effects of Silybum marianum on serum hepatitis C virus RNA, alanine aminotransferase levels and well-being in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006;21(1):275–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Grant JE, Odlaug BL. Silymarin treatment of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2015;35(3):340–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ardjomand-Woelkart K, Bauer R. Review and assessment of medicinal safety data of orally used Echinacea preparations. Planta Medica. 2016;82(01/02):17–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sarris J, Ng C, Schweitzer I. “Omic” genetic technologies for herbal medicines in psychiatry. Phytother Res. 2011;26:522–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ulrich-Merzenich G, Zeitler H, Jobst D, Panek D, Vetter H, Wagner H. Application of the “-Omic-” technologies in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(1):70–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erica McIntyre
    • 1
    • 2
  • David A. Camfield
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jerome Sarris
    • 5
    • 4
  1. 1.School of PsychologyCharles Sturt UniversityBathurstAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of HealthAustralian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine (ARCCIM), University of TechnologyUltimoAustralia
  3. 3.School of PsychologyUniversity of WollongongWollongongAustralia
  4. 4.Centre for Human PsychopharmacologySwinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia
  5. 5.University of Melbourne, Department of PsychiatryThe Melbourne Clinic, The Professorial Unit, ARCADIA Mental Health Research GroupRichmond, MelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations