Defensive Bee and Wasp Mimicry by Orchid Flowers



A variety of arthropods (e.g., flies, spiders, butterflies) are known to mimic bees or wasps as defense from predators (Cott 1940; Wickler 1968; Edmunds 1974; Plowright and Owen 1980; Rothschild 1984; Howarth and Edmunds 2000; Bain et al. 2007; Chittka and Osorio 2007; Penney et al. 2012) (Fig. 61.1). Bees and wasps may be aggressive and sting, and by this deter many animals including herbivores (Breed et al. 2004).


Perceptual Bias Pollinator Attraction Orchid Genus Chemical Mimicry Orchid Flower 
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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology & Environment, Faculty of Natural SciencesUniversity of Haifa – OranimTivonIsrael

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