Human-Robot Interaction: Proximity and Speed—Slowly Back Away from the Robot!

  • Keith R. MacArthurEmail author
  • Kimberly Stowers
  • P. A. Hancock
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 499)


This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of proximity and speed of approach on trust in human-robot interaction (HRI). The experimental design used a 2 (Speed) × 2 (Proximity) mixed factorial design and trust levels were measured by self-report on the Human Robot Trust Scale and the Trust in Automation Scale. Data analyses indicate proximity [F(2, 146) = 6.842, p < 0.01, partial ŋ2 = 0.086] and speed of approach [F(2, 146) = 2.885, p = 0.059, partial ŋ2 = 0.038] are significant factors contributing to changes in trust levels.


Human factors Human-robot interaction HRI Human-robot trust Proximity Proxemics Speed Psychological experiments Human robot trust scale Trust in automation scale 



We would like to thank Gabriella M. Hancock and Theresa T. Kessler for their assistance in this article. The research reported in this document was performed in connection with Contract No. W911NF-10-2-0016 with the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, under UCF, P.A. Hancock, Principal Investigator. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as presenting the official policies or position, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory or the U.S. government unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use thereof. The U.S. government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation herein.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Keith R. MacArthur
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kimberly Stowers
    • 1
  • P. A. Hancock
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Central FloridaOrlandoUSA

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