Human-Robot Interaction: Proximity and Speed—Slowly Back Away from the Robot!
This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of proximity and speed of approach on trust in human-robot interaction (HRI). The experimental design used a 2 (Speed) × 2 (Proximity) mixed factorial design and trust levels were measured by self-report on the Human Robot Trust Scale and the Trust in Automation Scale. Data analyses indicate proximity [F(2, 146) = 6.842, p < 0.01, partial ŋ2 = 0.086] and speed of approach [F(2, 146) = 2.885, p = 0.059, partial ŋ2 = 0.038] are significant factors contributing to changes in trust levels.
KeywordsHuman factors Human-robot interaction HRI Human-robot trust Proximity Proxemics Speed Psychological experiments Human robot trust scale Trust in automation scale
We would like to thank Gabriella M. Hancock and Theresa T. Kessler for their assistance in this article. The research reported in this document was performed in connection with Contract No. W911NF-10-2-0016 with the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, under UCF, P.A. Hancock, Principal Investigator. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as presenting the official policies or position, either expressed or implied, of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory or the U.S. government unless so designated by other authorized documents. Citation of manufacturer’s or trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use thereof. The U.S. government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for government purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation herein.
- 1.Mumm, J. Mutlu, B.: Human-robot proxemics: physical and psychological distancing in human-robot interaction: In: 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, pp. 331–338 (2011)Google Scholar
- 3.Billings, D.R., Schaefer, K.E., Chen, J.Y., Kocsis, V., Barrera, M., Cook, J., Ferrer, M., Hancock, P.A.: Human-animal trust as an analog for human-robot trust: a review of current evidence (No. ARL-TR-5949). Army Research Laboratory (2012), http://www.arl.army.mil/arlreports/2012/ARL-TR-5949.pdf
- 4.Stowers, K., Oglesby, J., Leyva, K., Iwig, C., Shimono, M., Hughes, A., Salas, E.: A framework to guide the assessment of human-machine systems. Hum. Factors, submittedGoogle Scholar
- 7.Krämer, N.C., von der Pütten, A., Eimler, S.: Human-agent and human-robot interaction theory: similarities to and differences from human-human interactions. Hum-Comput. Interact. 396, 215–240 (2012)Google Scholar
- 9.Russell, J.A., Ward, L.M.: Environmental psychology. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 33(1), 651–689Google Scholar
- 11.Takayama, L., Pantofaru, C.: Influences on proxemic behaviors in human-robot interaction. In: 22nd IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. IROS 2009, pp. 5495–5502. St. Louis, MO (2009)Google Scholar
- 12.Walters, M.L., Dautenhahn, K., te Boekhorst, R., Koay, K.L., Woods, S., Nehaniv, C., Lee, D., Werry, I.: The influence of subjects’ personality traits on personal spatial zones in a human-robot interaction experiment. In: 14th International Workshop on Robots and Human Interactive Communication. RO-MAN, pp. 347–352 (2005)Google Scholar
- 17.Pacchierotti, E., Christensen, H.I., Jensfelt, P.: Evaluations of distance for passage for a social robot. In: 15th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN06), pp. 315–320. IEEE Press, New York (2006)Google Scholar
- 19.Kelley, J.F.: An iterative design methodology for user-friendly natural language office information applications. ACM T. Inform. Syst. 2(1), 26–41 (1984)Google Scholar
- 20.Schaefer, K.E.: Perception and measurement of human-robot trust. Doctoral dissertation. University of Central Florida Orlando, FL. http://etd.fcla.edu/CF/CFE0004931/Schaefer_Kristin_E_201308_PhD.pdf
- 21.Jian, J.Y., Bisantz, A.M., Drury, C.G., Llinas, J.: Foundations for an empirically determined scale of trust in automated systems (No. CMIF198). Air Force Research Laboraotory (1998). http://www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=ADA395339
- 22.Jian, J.Y., Bisantz, A.M., Drury, C.G.: Foundations for an empirically determined scale of trust in automated systems. Int. J. Cogn. Ergon. 4(1), 53–71 (2000)Google Scholar