Iterative Interface Design for Robot Integration with Tactical Teams

  • K. M. Ibrahim AsifEmail author
  • Cindy L. Bethel
  • Daniel W. Carruth
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 499)


This research investigated mobile user interface requirements for robots used in tactical operations and evaluated user responses through an iterative participatory design process. A longitudinal observational study (five sessions across six months) was conducted for the iterative development of robot capabilities and a mobile user interface. Select members of the tactical team wore the mobile interface and performed operations with the robot. After each training an after-action review and feedback was received about the training, the interface, robot capabilities, and desired modifications. Based on the feedback provided, iterative updates were made to the robotic system and the user interface. The field training studies presented difficulties in the interpretation of the responses due to complex interactions and external influences. Iterative designs, observations, and lessons learned are presented related to the integration of robots with tactical teams.


Human-robot interaction Mobile user interface Human factors SWAT Robot integration 



The authors would like to thank the Starkville City Police for allowing us to work with their SWAT teams. We would also like to thank Zachary Henkel, Christopher Hudson, Lucas Kramer, and Paul Barrett for their support and assistance throughout this project.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. M. Ibrahim Asif
    • 1
    Email author
  • Cindy L. Bethel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Daniel W. Carruth
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA
  2. 2.Center for Advanced Vehicular SystemsMississippi State UniversityMississippi StateUSA

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