Mitochondrial DNA Diversity of Wild and Hatchery Reared Strains of Indian Lates calcarifer (Bloch)
Lates calcarifer, locally known as seabass in Asia and barramundi in Australia, is a large, euryhaline member of the family Centropomidae that is widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific region. Its hardy nature, high tolerance to wide range physiological condition and high commercial value has made it a good candidate species for aquaculture practices. In this study we compared the mtDNA diversity of hatchery reared and wild Lates calcarifer using universal DNA barcode gene (Cytochrome Oxidase C subunit 1 gene) to assess the genetic health of L. calcarifer hatchery practices in India. Sampling stations were randomly chosen to cover both East and West coasts of India. The phylogram constructed with COI sequences (n = 88) of L. calcarifer revealed that geographic distributions of clades are not restricted to any particular sampling stations. Gene flow appeared to have transported haplotypes between the clades from their likely origins across the sampled range. Both Nucleotide (π) and haplotyte (h) diversity of wild L. calcarifer was higher in East coast samples compared to West coast samples. The comparative genetic diversity analysis assessed through COI sequences between hatchery reared and wild catches of L. calcarifer showed that the nucleotide diversity of hatchery strains was 2.7 times lesser than that of wild strains, demanding immediate action plans to restore genetic diversity in L. calcarifer hatchery practices in India.
KeywordsLates calcarifer COI gene DNA barcoding Haplotype diversity Genetic diversity
This work was partly supported by UGC fellowship. Our special thanks are due to the Dean of Centre of Advanced Studies in Marine Biology (CASMB), Annamalai University for his constant encouragement and University officials for providing the necessary facilities. Our special thanks to RGCA, Tamil Nadu and Takave farms, Maharastra for their helpfulness in sampling. We acknowledge the technical support extended by Priority Life Sciences, Coimbatore, India and Macrogen Inc., North Korea.
- Allendorf FW, Ryman N (1987) Genetic management of hatchery stocks. In: Ryman N, Utter F (eds) Population genetics and fisheries management. University of Washington Press, Seattle, pp 141–159Google Scholar
- Carr JW, Anderson JM, Whoriskey FG, Dilworth T (1997) The occurrence and spawning of cultured Atlantic salmon (Salmosalar) in a Canadian river. ICESJ Mar Sci 56:064–1073Google Scholar
- Cross T, Dillance E, Galvin P (2000) Which molecular markers should be chosen for different specific applications in fisheries and aquaculture? National University of Ireland. http://www.ucc.ie/ucc/research/adc/molmark/index.html
- FAO (2011) Asia-Pacific fishery commission—Report of the thirty-first session. RAP Publication 2010/14Google Scholar
- Ferguson MM, Ihssen PE, Hynes JD (1991) Are culture stocks of brown trout (Salmotruta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchusmykiss) genetically similar to their source populations? Can J Fish Aquat Sci 46:149–158Google Scholar
- Hall TA (1999) BioEdit: a user-friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for windows 95/98/NT. Nucl Acids Symp Ser 41:95–98Google Scholar
- Macbeth M, O’Brien L, Palmer P, Lewer R, Garrett R, Wingfield M, Knibb W (2002) Selective breeding in Barramundi: technical report for the Australian Barramundi Farmers Association, Department of Primary IndustriesGoogle Scholar
- Nei M (1987) Evolutonary molecular genetics. University of Columbia Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Pusey B, Kennardm M, Arthington A (2004) Freshwater fishes of North-Eastern Australia. CSIRO Publishing, CollingwoodGoogle Scholar
- Tave D (1993) Genetics for fish hatchery managers. Van Nostr and Reinhold, New York, 415pGoogle Scholar