Advertisement

Imaging Polymer Nanoparticles by Means of Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopy Techniques

  • Nicolas TsapisEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter describes methods of imaging polymer nanoparticles by electron microscopy. Protocols for the preparation of nanoparticles for observations by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and cryo-transmission electron microscopy are proposed. Possible artifacts are shown.

Keywords

Electron microscopy Polymer nanoparticles Preparation methods Negative staining Artifacts 

References

  1. Adrian M, Dubochet J, Lepault J, McDowall AW (1984) Cryo-electron microscopy of viruses. Nature 308:32–36. doi: 10.1038/308032a0 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anyfantakis M, Baigl D (2015) Manipulating the coffee-ring effect: interactions at work. ChemPhysChem 16:2726–2734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Betzig E, Patterson GH, Sougrat R, Lindwasser OW, Olenych S, Bonifacino JS, Davidson MW, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Hess HF (2006) Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution. Science 313:1642–1645CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Birrenbach G, Speiser PP (1976) Polymerized micelles and their use as adjuvants in immunology. J Pharm Sci 65:1763–1766CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cauchois O, Segura-Sanchez F, Ponchel G (2013) Molecular weight controls the elongation of oblate-shaped degradable poly(gamma-benzyl-l-glutamate) nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 452:292–299CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Costello MJ (2006) Cryo-electron microscopy of biological samples. Ultrastruct Pathol 30:361–371CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Couvreur P, Kante B, Roland M, Guiot P, Bauduin P, Speiser P (1979) Polycyanoacrylate nanocapsules as potential lysosomotropic carriers: preparation, morphological and sorptive properties. J Pharm Pharmacol 31:331–332CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Deegan RD, Bakajin O, Dupont TF, Huber G, Nagel SR, Witten TA (1997) Capillary flow as the cause of ring stains from dried liquid drops. Nature 389:827–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Diou O, Fattal E, Delplace V, Mackiewicza N, Nicolas J, Mériaux S, Valette J, Robice C (2014) Tsapis NRGD decoration of PEGylated polyester nanocapsules of perfluorooctyl bromide for tumor imaging: influence of pre or post-functionalization on capsule morphology. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 87:170–177CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Eral HB, Mampallil Augustine D, Duitsa MHG, Mugele F (2011) Suppressing the coffee stain effect: how to control colloidal self-assembly in evaporating drops using electrowetting. Soft Matter 7:4954–4958. doi: 10.1039/C1SM05183K CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fattal E, Tsapis N (2014) Nanomedicine technology: current achievements and new trends. Clin Transl Imaging 2:77–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fattal E, Rojas J, Roblot-Treupel L, Andremont A, Couvreur P (1991) Ampicillin-loaded liposomes and nanoparticles—comparison of drug loading, drug release and in vitro antimicrobial activity. J Microencapsul 8:29–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fessi H, Devissaguet JP, Puisieux F, Thies C (1992) Process for the preparaton of dispersible colloidal systems of a substance in the form of nanocapsules. US patent US5118528 A. Publication date 2 June 1992Google Scholar
  14. Gabizon A, Catane R, Uziely B, Kaufman B, Safra T, Cohen R, Martin F, Huang A, Barenholz Y (1994) Prolonged circulation time and enhanced accumulation in malignant exudates of doxorubicin encapsulated in polyethylene-glycol coated liposomes. Cancer Res 54:987–992PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Grabowski N, Hillaireau H, Vergnaud J, Tsapis N, Pallardy M, Kerdine-Römer S, Fattal E (2015) Surface coating mediates the toxicity of polymeric nanoparticles towards human-like macrophages. Int J Pharm 482:75–83. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2014.11.042 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gregoriadis G, Ryman BE (1971) Liposomes as carriers of enzymes or drugs: a new approach to the treatment of storage diseases. Biochem J 124:58PCrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Hope MJ, Wong KF, Cullis PR (1989) Freeze-fracture of lipids and model membrane systems. J Electron Microsc Tech 13:277–287CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnston AH, Dalton PD, Newman TA (2010) Polymersomes, smaller than you think: ferrocene as a TEM probe to determine core structure. J Nanopart Res 12:1997–2001. doi: 10.1007/s11051-010-9886-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jones MC, Leroux JC (1999) Polymeric micelles—a new generation of colloidal drug carriers. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 48:101–111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Joondeph BC, Peyman GA, Khoobehi B, Yue BY (1988) Liposome-encapsulated 5-Fluorouracil in the treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Ophthalmic Surg 19:252–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Klang V, Valenta C, Matsko NB (2013) Electron microscopy of pharmaceutical systems. Micron 44:45–74CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lee JS, Feijen J (2012) Polymersomes for drug delivery: design, formation and characterization. J Control Release 161:473–483CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Lopez-Berestein G, Mehta R, Hopfer RL, Mills K, Kasi L, Mehta K, Fainstein V, Luna M, Hersh EM, Juliano R (1983) Treatment and prophylaxis of disseminated infection due to Candida-Albicans in mice with liposome-encapsulated amphotericin-B. J Infect Dis 147:939–945CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Losa C, Marchal-Heussler L, Orallo F, Vila Jato JL, Alonso MJ (1993) Design of new formulations for topical ocular administration—polymeric nanocapsules containing metipranolol. Pharm Res 10:80–87CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Mitragotri S (2009) In drug delivery, shape does matter. Pharm Res 26:232–234CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Moore J, Cerasoli E (2010) Particle light scattering methods and applications. In: Lindon JC (ed) Encyclopedia of spectroscopy and spectrometry, 2nd edn. Academic Press, Oxford, pp 2077–2088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pérez-Arantegui J, Mulvey T (2005) Microscopy techniques/electron microscopy. In: Poole PWT (ed) Encyclopedia of analytical science, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 114–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pisani E, Tsapis N, Paris J, Nicolas V, Cattel L, Fattal E (2006) Polymeric nano/microcapsules of liquid perfluorocarbons for ultrasonic imaging: Physical characterization. Langmuir 22:4397–4402CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Rust MJ, Bates M, Zhuang X (2006) Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM). Nat Methods 3:793–796CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Scott EA, Stano A, Gillard M, Maio-Liu AC, Swartz MA, Hubbell JA (2012) Dendritic cell activation and T cell priming with adjuvant- and antigen-loaded oxidation-sensitive polymersomes. Biomaterials 33:6211–6219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Vanderhoff JW, El Aasser MS, Ugelstad J (1979) Polymer emulsification process. US patent US 4177177 A. Publication date 4 Dec 1979Google Scholar
  32. Westphal V, Rizzoli SO, Lauterbach MA, Kamin D, Jahn R, Hell SW (2008) Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement. Science 320:246–249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut Galien Paris Sud, Faculty of PharmacyUMR CNRS 8612, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris SaclayChâtenay-MalabryFrance

Personalised recommendations