Analyses of Biomass Fibers by XRD, FT-IR, and NIR



This chapter involves the description and application of three advanced analytical techniques that are currently used to assess the potential of biomass for the production of biofuels, feeds, and chemicals. X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, and NIR may be used to study the structure of fibers in native biomass as well as changes during conditioning, pretreatment, and processing in a modern biorefinery. X-ray diffraction is used mainly to study the crystallinity of the samples based on the cellulose fraction which is one of the two major barriers for hydrolysis. FT-IR is used to get insight about the presence and interactions of main components of the fiber such as cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. NIR is mainly used for a fast chemical characterization of the biomass and it is gaining a place to study changes caused by the pretreatments.


Biomass fibers Molecular properties X-Ray Spectroscopy 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Analytical Instrumentation Laboratory, Science FacultyUniversity of ZuliaMaracaiboVenezuela
  2. 2.Chemometrics and Optimization Unit, Zulian Institute of Technological ResearchLa Cañada de UrdanetaVenezuela
  3. 3.Chemical Engineering LaboratoryChemical Engineering School, Engineering Faculty, University of ZuliaMaracaiboVenezuela
  4. 4.Agrifoods Unit, Zulian Institute of Technological ResearchLa Cañada de UrdanetaVenezuela

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