Skip to main content

Neurosurgical Overview

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Rehabilitative Surgery

Abstract

Stroke refers to any new neurological symptoms with sudden onset. This commonly used term can refer to any cerebrovascular disease of the nervous system that interrupts neural tissue function abruptly. When patients present to the emergency room with an abrupt onset of new focal neurologic deficits, the etiology of 95 % will be vascular (i.e., stroke), and 5 % will be other disease processes such as seizures, tumor, or psychogenic. Stroke is most commonly used to describe an ischemic event involving an acute occlusion of an artery supplying neural tissue. However, stroke can also result from loss of neural tissue function secondary to sudden hemorrhage into the neural tissue. Approximately 85 % of all strokes are ischemic in nature, while the remaining 15 % of strokes are hemorrhagic in nature [1].

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 84.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 109.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Blaha MJ, Dai S, Ford ES, Fox CS, Franco S, Fullerton HJ, Gillespie C, Hailpern SM, Heit JA, Howard VJ, Huffman MD, Judd SE, Kissela BM, Kittner SJ, Lackland DT, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth LD, Mackey RH, Magid DJ, Marcus GM, Marelli A, Matchar DB, McGuire DK, Mohler 3rd ER, Moy CS, Mussolino ME, Neumar RW, Nichol G, Pandey DK, Paynter NP, Reeves MJ, Sorlie PD, Stein J, Towfighi A, Turan TN, Virani SS, Wong ND, Woo D, Turner MB, American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Executive summary: heart disease and stroke statistics – 2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014;129(3):399–410 12p.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Blaha MJ, Dai S, Ford ES, Fox CS, Franco S, Fullerton HJ, Gillespie C, Hailpern SM, Heit JA, Howard VJ, Huffman MD, Judd SE, Kissela BM, Kittner SJ, Lackland DT, Lichtman JH, Lisabeth LD, Mackey RH, Magid DJ, Marcus GM, Marelli A, Matchar DB, McGuire DK, Mohler ER, Moy CS, Mussolino ME, Neumar RW, Nichol G, Pandey DK, Paynter NP, Reeves MJ, Sorlie PD, Stein J, Towfighi A, Turan TN, Virani SS, Wong ND, Woo D, Turner MB, American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014;129:e28–292.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Chung YA, Hyun OJ, Kim JY, Kim KJ, Ahn KJ. Hypoperfusion and ischemia in cerebral amyloid angiopathy documented by 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT. J Nucl Med. 2009;50(12):1969–74.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Weller RO, Preston SD, Subash M, Carare RO. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy in the aetiology and immunotherapy of Alzheimer disease. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2009;1(2):6.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Mehdi A, Hajj-Ali RA. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: a comprehensive update. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2014;18(9):1–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Adams Jr HP, del Zoppo G, Alberts MJ, Bhatt DL, Brass L, Furlan A, Grubb RL, Higashida RT, Jauch EC, Kidwell C, Lyden PD, Morgenstern LB, Qureshi AI, Rosenwasser RH, Scott PA, Wijdicks EF, American Heart Association; American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Clinical Cardiology Council; Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council; Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease and Quality of Care Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Groups. Guidelines for the early management of adults with ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council, Clinical Cardiology Council, Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention Council, and the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease and Quality of Care Outcomes in Research Interdisciplinary Working Groups: the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline as an educational tool for neurologists. Stroke (00392499). 2007;38(5):1655–711 57p.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Albers GW, Amarenco P, Easton JD, Sacco RL, Teal P. Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th edition). Chest. 2008;133(6 Suppl):630S–69S.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Hemphill 3rd JC, Greenberg SM, Anderson CS, Becker K, Bendok BR, Cushman M, Fung GL, Goldstein JN, Macdonald RL, Mitchell PH, Scott PA, Selim MH, Woo D, American Heart Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke J Cereb Circulation. 2015;46(7):2032–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Smith W, Tsao J, Billings M, Johnston S, Hemphill J, Bonovich D, Dillon W. Prognostic significance of angiographically confirmed large vessel intracranial occlusion in patients presenting with acute brain ischemia. Neurocrit Care. 2006;4(1):14–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Sarraj A, Gupta R. Endovascular treatment for ischemic strokes with large vessel occlusion: proven therapy and bright future. Stroke J Cereb Circulation. 2015;46(5):1431–2.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Feigin VL, Rinkel GJ, Lawes CM, et al. Risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage: an updated systematic review of epidemiological studies. Stroke. 2005;36(12):2773–80.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Adams Jr HP, Butler MJ, Biller J, Toffol GJ. Nonhemorrhagic cerebral infarction in young adults. Arch Neurol. 1986;43:793–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Ferguson GG, Eliasziw M, Barr HW, Clagett GP, Barnes RW, Wallace MC, Taylor DW, Haynes RB, Finan JW, Hachinski VC, Barnett HJ. The North American symptomatic carotid endarterectomy trial – surgical results in 1415 patients. Stroke. 1999;30(9):1751–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Morgenstern LB, Frankowski RF, Shedden P, Pasteur W, Grotta JC. Surgical treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage (STICH): a single-center, randomized clinical trial. Neurology. 1998;51:1359–63.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Rubin MN, Barrett KM. What to do with wake-up stroke. Neurohospitalist. 2015;5(3):161–72.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. Yamane F, Takeshita M, Izawa M, Kagawa M, Sato K, Takakura K. Natural history of arteriovenous malformations: analysis of non-radically treated patients. J Clin Neurosci. 1998;5(suppl):26–9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Berger MS, Rostomily RC. Low grade gliomas: functional mapping resection strategies, extent of resection, and outcome. J Neurooncol. 1997;34(1):85–101.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Eyüpoglu I, Hore N, Savaskan N, Grummich P, Roessler K, Buchfelder M, Ganslandt O. Improving the extent of malignant glioma resection by dual intraoperative visualization approach. Plos ONE. 2012;7(9):e44885.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  19. Patchell RA, Tibbs PA, Walsh JW, et al. A randomized trial of surgery in the treatment of single metastases to the brain. New Eng J Med. 1990;322(8):494–500.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Patchell RA, Tibbs PA, Regine WF, et al. Postoperative radiotherapy in the treatment of single metastases to the brain: a randomized trial. J Am Med Assoc. 1998;280:1485–9.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Kondziolka D, Patel A, Lunsford LD, Kassam A, Flickinger JC. Clinical investigations: stereotactic radiosurgery plus whole brain radiotherapy versus radiotherapy alone for patients with multiple brain metastases. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999;45:427–34.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Glantz MJ, Cole BF, Forsyth PA, Recht LD, Wen PY, Chamberlain MC, Grossman SA, Cairncross JG. Practice parameter: anticonvulsant prophylaxis in patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors: report of the quality standards subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2000;54(10):1886–93.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Ireland S, Carlino K, Gould L, Frazier F, Haycock P, Ilton S, Deptuck R, Bousfield B, Verge D, Antoni K, MacRae L, Renshaw H, Bialachowski A, Chagnon C, Reddy K. Shampoo after craniotomy: a pilot study. Can J Neurosci Nurs. 2007;29(1):14–9 6p.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Greenberg MS. Chiari malformation handbook of neurosurgery. 5th ed. New York: Thieme; 2001. p. 143–6.

    Google Scholar 

  25. Carmel PF. Management of the Chiari malformations in childhood. Clini Neurosurg. 1983;30:385–406.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Paul K, Lye R, Strang F, Dutton J. Arnold-Chiari malformation. Review of 71 cases. J Neurosurgery. 1983;58(2):183–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Levy W, Mason L, Hahn J. Chiari malformation presenting in adults: a surgical experience in 127 cases. Neurosurgery. 1983;12(4):377–90.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Alden TD, Ojemann JG, Park TS. Surgical treatment of Chiari I malformation: indications and approaches. Neurosurg Focus. 2001;11(1):E2.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Duddy JC, Allcutt D, Crimmins D, O’Brien D, O’Brien DF, Rawluk D, Sattar MT, Young S, Caird J. Foramen magnum decompression for Chiari I malformation: a procedure not to be underestimated. Br J Neurosurgery. 2014;28(3):330–4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Vakharia V, Guilfoyle M, Laing R. Prospective study of outcome of foramen magnum decompressions in patients with syrinx and non-syrinx associated Chiari malformations. Br J Neurosurgery. 2012;26(1):7–11.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Greenberg MS. Handbook of neurosurgery. New York: Thieme; 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Bergsneider M, Black P, Klinge P, Marmarou A, Relkin N. Surgical management of idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery. 2005;57(3):29–39.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Malm J, Kristensen B, Stegmayr B, Fagerlund M, Koskinen LO. Three-year survival and functional outcome of patients with idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome. Neurology. 2000;55:576–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Mamelak AN, Mampalam TJ, Obana WG, Rosenblum ML. Improved management of multiple brain abscesses: a combined surgical and medical approach. Neurosurgery. 1995;36:76–86.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Calfee DP, Wispelwey B. Brain abscess. Semin Neurol. 2000;20(3):353–60.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Dill S, Cobbs C, McDonald C. Subdural empyema: analysis of 32 cases and review. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20(2):372–86.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Carpio A. Neurocysticercosis: an update. Lancet Infect Dis. 2002;20(12):751–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Tyler KL. Update on herpes simplex encephalitis. Rev Neurol Dis. 2004;1(4):169–78.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Minari A, et al. The incidence of invasive aspergillosis among solid organ transplant recipients and implications for prophylaxis in lung transplants. Transpl Infect Dis. 2002;4(4):195–200.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Darouiche RO. Spinal epidural abscess. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2012–202.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Kanev PM, et al. Reflections on shunt infection. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2003;39(6):285–90.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Forgacs P, et al. Characterization of chemical meningitis after neurological surgery. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;32(2):179–85.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Bruce J, Bruce S. Preservation of bone flaps in patients with postcraniotomy infections. J Neurosurgery. 2003;98(6):1203–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Cold G. Cerebral blood flow in acute head injury. The regulation of cerebral blood flow and metabolism during the acute phase of head injury, and its significance for therapy. Acta Neurochir Suppl. 1990;49:1–64.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Parkinson D. Evaluating cerebral concussion. Surg Neurol. 1996;45(5):459–62.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Alves WM, Jane JA. Post-traumatic syndrome. In: Youmans JR, editor. Neurological surgery, vol. 3. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1990. p. 2230–42.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Reilly P, Graham D, Hume Adams J, Jennett B. Patients with head injury who talk and die. Lancet. 1975;306(7931):375–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Duus B, Lind B, Christensen H, Nielsen O. The role of neuroimaging in the initial management of patients with minor head injury. Anna Emerg Med. 1994;23(6):1279–83.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Stein SC, Ross SE. Mild head injury: a plea for routine early ct scanning. J Trauma Injury Inf Critical Care. 1992;33(1):11–3.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Jordan BD, Kanik AB, Horwich MS, Sweeney D, Relkin NR, Petito CK, Gandy S. Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 and fatal cerebral amyloid angiopathy associated with dementia pugilistica. Annals Neurol. 1995;38(4):698–9.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Wilberger JE, Deeb Z, Deeb W. Magnetic resonance imaging after closed head injury. Neurosurgery. 1987;20:571–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Cohen TI, Gudeman SK. Delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma. In: Narayan RK, Wilberger JE, Povlishock JT, editors. Neurotrauma. New York: McGraw-Hil; 1996. p. 689–701.

    Google Scholar 

  53. Cooper P, Maravilla K, Moody S, Kemp Clark W. Serial computerized tomographic scanning and the prognosis of severe head injury. Neurosurgery. 1979;5(5):566–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Taneda M, Kataoka K, Akai F, Asai T, Sakata I. Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage as a predictable indicator of delayed ischemic symptoms. J Neurosurgery. 1996;84(5):762–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. Jaeger M, Schuhmann M, Soehle M, Nagel C, Meixensberger J. Continuous monitoring of cerebrovascular autoregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage by brain tissue oxygen pressure reactivity and its relation to delayed cerebral infarction. Stroke (00392499). 2007;38(3):981–6 6p.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Link TE, Murakami K, Beem-Miller M, Tranmer BI, Wellman GC. Oxyhemoglobin-induced expression of R-Type Ca2+ channels in cerebral arteries. Stroke. 2008;39(7):2122–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. Findlay J, Macdonald R, Weir B (n.d) Current concepts of pathophysiology and management of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebrovascular Brain Metab Rev. . 1991 Winter;3(4):336–61.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Tian H, Xu T, Hu J, Cui Y, Chen H, Zhou L. Risk factors related to hydrocephalus after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. Surg Neurol. 2008;69(3):241–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Rivas J, Lobato R, Sarabia R, Cordobes F, Cabrera A, Gomez P. Extradural hematoma: analysis of factors influencing the courses of 161 patients. Neurosurgery. 1988;23(1):44–51.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Mckissock W, Taylor J, Bloom W, Till K. Extradural hæmatoma. Observations on 125 cases. Lancet. 1960;276(7143):167–72.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Bullock R, Chesnut RM, Clifton G, Ghajar J, Marion DW, Narayan RK, Newell DW, Pitts LH, Rosner MJ, Wilberger JW. Guidelines for the management of severe head injury. Brain Trauma Foundation. Eur J Emerg Med Off J Euro Soc Emerg Med. 1996;3(2):109–27.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  62. Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, Gordon D, Hartl R, Newell DW, Servadei F, Walters BC, Wilberger J, Surgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury. Surgical management of traumatic parenchymal lesions. Neurosurgery. 2006;58(3 Suppl):S25.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Bullock MR, Chesnut R, Ghajar J, Gordon D, Hartl R, Newell DW, Servadei F, Walters BC, Wilberger JE, Surgical Management of Traumatic Brain Injury. Surgical management of acute subdural hematomas. Neurosurgery. 2006;58(3 Suppl):S16.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Robinson R. Chronic subdural hematoma: surgical management in 133 patients. J Neurosurgery. 1984;61(2):263–8.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Abouzari M, Armin R, Rezaii J, Esfandiari K, Asadollahi M, Aleali H, Abdollahzadeh M. The role of postoperative patient posture in the recurrence of traumatic chronic subdural hematoma after burr-hole surgery. Neurosurgery. 2007;61(4):794–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Sambasivan M. An overview of chronic subdural hematoma: experience with 2300 cases. Surg Neurol. 1997;47(5):418–22.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Sahuquillo-Barris J, Lamarca-Ciuro J, Vilalta-Castan J, Rubio-Garcia E, Rodriquez-Pazos M. Acute subdural hematoma and diffuse axonal injury after severe head trauma. J Neurosurgery. 1988;68(6):894–900.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Bouma G, Muizelaar J, Choi S, Newlon P, Young H. Cerebral circulation and metabolism after severe traumatic brain injury: the elusive role of ischemia. J Neurosurg. 1991;75(5):685–93.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Alberico A, Ward J, Choi S, Marmarou A, Young H. Outcome after severe head injury. Relationship to mass lesions, diffuse injury, and ICP course in pediatric and adult patients. J Neurosurgery. 1987;67(5):648–56.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. Polin R, Shaffrey M, Bogaev C, Tisdale N, Germanson T, Bocchicchio B, Jane J. Decompressive bifrontal craniectomy in the treatment of severe refractory posttraumatic cerebral edema. Neurosurgery. 1997;41(1):84–94.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Aarabi B, Hesdorffer D, Ahn E, Aresco C, Scalea T, Eisenberg H. Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant swelling due to severe head injury. J Neurosurgery. 2006;104(4):469–79.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Dacey Jr R, Alves W, Rimel R, Winn H, Jane J. Neurosurgical complications after apparently minor head injury: assessment of risk in a series of 610 patients. J Neurosurgery. 1986;65(2):203–10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Chang B, Lowenstein D. Practice parameter: antiepileptic drug prophylaxis in severe traumatic brain injury: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology. 2003;60(1):10–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Bratton SL, Chestnut RM, Ghajar J, Hammond FFM, Harris OA, Hartl R, et al. Brain Trauma Foundation: anti-seizure prophylaxis. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24:S83–6.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Lewin W. Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhœa in closed head injuries. Br J Surg. 1954;42(171):1.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Esslen E. Electrodiagnosis of facial palsy. In: Miehlke A, editor. Surgery of the facial nerve. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W B Saunders; 1973. p. 45–51.

    Google Scholar 

  77. Gudeman S, Kishore P, Miller J, Girevendulis A, Lipper M, Becker D. The genesis and significance of delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma. Neurosurgery. 1979;5(3):309–13.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Chan KH, Lai EC, Tuen H, Ngan JH, Mok F, Fan YW, Fung CF, Yu WC. Prospective double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial on the use of ranitidine in preventing postoperative gastroduodenal complications in high- risk neurosurgical patients. J Neurosurgery. 1995;82(3):413–7.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  79. Kaufman HH, Satterwhite T, McConnell BJ, Costin B, Borit A, Gould L, Pruessner J, Bernstein D, Gildenberg PL. Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in head injured patients. Angiology. 1983;34(10):627.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Bratton SL, Chestnut RM, Ghajar J, Hammond FFM, Harris OA, Hartl R, et al. Brain Trauma Foundation: deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24:S32–6.

    Google Scholar 

  81. Poca M, Sahuquillo J, Arikan F, Mataró M, Benejam B, Báguena M. Ventricular enlargement after moderate or severe head injury: a frequent and neglected problem. J Neurotrauma. 2005;22(11):1303–10.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Marmarou A, Foda MA, Bandoh K, Yoshihara M, Yamamoto T, Tsuji O, et al. Posttraumatic ventriculomegaly: hydrocephalus or atrophy? A new approach for diagnosis using CSF dynamics. J Neurosurgery. 1996;85(6):1026–35.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. Clark J, Raggatt P, Edwards O. Hypothalamic hypogonadism following major head injury. Clini Endocrinol (Oxf). 1988;29(2):153–65.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. Edwards O, Clark J. Post-traumatic hypopituitarism: six cases and a review of the literature. Med (US). 1986;65(5):281–90.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  85. Mayeux R, Ottman R, Tang M, Marder K, Stern Y, Gurland B, Noboa-Bauza L. Genetic susceptibility and head injury as risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease among community-dwelling elderly persons and their first-degree relatives. Anna Neurol. 1993;33(5):494–501.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. Roberts G, Gentleman S, Lynch A, Murray L, Graham D, Landon M. β3 Amyloid protein deposition in the brain after severe head injury: Implications for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurgery Psychiatry. 1994;57(4):419–25.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  87. Bratton SL, Chestnut RM, Ghajar J, Hammond FFM, Harris OA, Hartl R, et al. Brain Trauma Foundation: steroids. J Neurotrauma. 2007;24:S 91–5.

    Google Scholar 

  88. Deutschman C, Konstantinides F, Raup S, Thienprasit P, Cerra F. Physiological and metabolic response to isolated closed-head injury. Part 1: Basal metabolic state: correlations of metabolic and physiological parameters with fasting and stressed controls. J Neurosurgery. 1986;64(1):89–98.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. Rapp R, Young D, Twyman D, Bivins B, Haack D, Tibbs P, Bean J. The favorable effect of early parenteral feeding on survival in head-injured patients. J Neurosurgery. 1983;58(6):906–12.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. Hadley M, Grahm T, Harrington T, Schiller W, McDermott M, Posillico D. Nutritional support and neurotrauma: a critical review of early nutrition in forty-five acute head injury patients. Neurosurgery. 1986;19(3):367–73.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  91. Vespa PM, McArthur D, O’Phelan K, Glenn T, Etchepare M, Kelly D, Bergsneider M, Martin NA, Hovda DA. Persistently low extracellular glucose correlates with poor outcome 6 months after human traumatic brain injury despite a lack of increased lactate: a microdialysis study. J Cereb Blood Flow Met. 2003;23(7):865–77.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  92. Kaufman H, Bretaudiere J, Rowlands B, Stein D, Bernstein D, Wagner K, Gildenberg P. General metabolism in head injury. Neurosurgery. 1987;20(2):254–65.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. Senelick R, Dougherty K. Living with Brain Injury. 2nd ed. Birmingham: HealthSouth Press; 2001.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jonathan Lustgarten MD .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Lustgarten, J., Estin, D., Olson, T., Link, T., Moyle, H. (2017). Neurosurgical Overview. In: Elkwood, A., Kaufman, M., Schneider, L. (eds) Rehabilitative Surgery. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41406-5_6

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-41406-5_6

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-41404-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-41406-5

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics