Recovery of Diaphragm Function Through Functional Electrical Stimulation: Diaphragm Pacing

  • Raymond P. OndersEmail author


Mechanical ventilation (MV) has saved countless lives. Since MV was introduced, it is the primary therapy for respiratory failure and a fundamental treatment in intensive care units. Whether MV is used during a surgical procedure or to treat respiratory failure, it is generally a time-limited therapy that, when withdrawn, has no untoward sequelae. However, there are a number of patients who become dependent on MV. These patients, often referred to as “failure to wean” (FTW), present a significant physiologic and economic burden to the healthcare system.


Spinal Cord Injury Phrenic Nerve Functional Electrical Stimulation Spinal Cord Injury Patient Diaphragm Muscle 
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Conflict of Interest Disclosure

Dr. Raymond Onders, University Hospitals of Cleveland, and Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine have intellectual property rights involved with the diaphragm pacing system and equity in Synapse Biomedical who manufactures the device.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of MedicineClevelandUSA

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