Advertisement

Exploring Upcoming Theories for BMI Research: Enlightening the Dark Side of the Moon

  • Oliver Gassmann
  • Karolin Frankenberger
  • Roman Sauer
Chapter

Abstract

Creativity in research occurs by looking at the same phenomenon through new eyes, that is, different perspectives can be uncovered through novel theoretical lenses. Thirty additional theories with potential for future research in exploring multiple aspects of business models are presented in this chapter. These theories, however, lead a niche existence in management science compared to the ones introduced in Chap.  3. The sections are structured similar to Chap.  3 by introducing each of the 30 theories separately and then highlighting avenues for future research. This approach contributes to business model research in exploring how scholars can profit by drawing on a broader array of theories. Analysing business models in management science seems like a paradigm shift in which new perspectives are needed to explore the phenomenon. This chapter provides a comprehensive foundation for this end.

Keywords

Business models Business model innovation New theoretical views Review of 30 niche theories in management science Avenues for future research Future research directions 

Bibliography

  1. Abrahamson, E. (1991). Managerial fads and fashions: The diffusion and refection of innovations. Academy of Management Review, 16(3), 586–612.Google Scholar
  2. Abrahamson, E. (1996). Management fashion. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 254–285.Google Scholar
  3. Abrahamson, E., & Fairchild, G. (1999). Management fashion: Lifecycles, triggers, and collective learning processes. Academy of Management Best Papers Proceedings, 44(4), 708–740.Google Scholar
  4. Adams, J. S. (1963). Towards an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal and Normal Social Psychology, 67(5), 422–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 2(4), 267–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amram, M., & Kulatilaka, N. (1998). Real options: Managing strategic investment in an uncertain world, OUP catalogue. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, P., & Tushman, M. L. (1990). Technological discontinuities and dominant designs : A cyclical model of technological change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(4), 604–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Aspara, J., Hietanen, J., & Tikkanen, H. (2009). Business model innovation vs. replication: Financial performance implications of strategic emphases. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 18(1), 39–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Atkinson, R. C., & Shiffrin, R. M. (1968). Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. In K. Spence & J. Spence (Eds.), Psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 2, pp. 89–195). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  10. Aumann, R.J., Schelling, T.C., Schelling, Thomas C. Nobelprize (2005). Robert Aumann’s and Thomas Schelling’s Contributions to Game Theory: Analyses of Conflict and Cooperation. Press release on scientific background, retrrieved from: http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economic-sciences/laureates/2005/advanced-economicsciences2005.pdf
  11. Baden-Fuller, C., & Morgan, M. S. (2010). Business models as models. Long Range Planning, 43(2–3), 156–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bandura, A. (1978). Reflections on self-efficacy. Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1(4), 237–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  16. Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. The American Psychologist, 44(9), 1175–1184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Co..Google Scholar
  18. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bazerman, M. H. (1984). The relevance of Khaneman and Tversky’s concept of framing to organization behavior. Journal of Management, 10(3), 333–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Blau, P. M. (1955). The dynamics of bureaucracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  21. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Bock, A. J., Opsahl, T., George, G., & Gann, D. M. (2012). The effects of culture and structure on strategic flexibility during business model innovation. Journal of Management Studies, 49(2), 279–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bookstaber, R. M. (1981). Option pricing and strategies in investing. Boston: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  24. Bourgeois, L. J. (1981). On the measurement of organizational slack. The Academy of Management Review, 6(1), 29–39.Google Scholar
  25. Brehm, J. W., & Cohen, A. R. (1962). Explorations in cognitive dissonance. New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brockriede, W., & Ehninger, D. (1960). Toulmin on argument: An interpretation and application. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 46(1), 44–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cambel, A. B. (1993). Applied chaos theory-A paradigm for complexity. Boston: Academic.Google Scholar
  28. Carson, P. P., Lanier, P. A., Carson, K. D., & Birkenmeier, B. J. (1999). A historical perspective on fad adoption and abandonment. Journal of Management History, 5(6), 320–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Casadesus-Masanell, R., & Zhu, F. (2013). Business model innovation and competitive imitation: The case of sponsor-based business models. Strategic Management Journal, 34(4), 464–482.Google Scholar
  30. Chanal, V., & Caron-Fasan, M.-L. (2010). The difficulties involved in developing business models open to innovation communities: The case of a crowdsourcing platform. M@n@gement, 13(4), 318–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cho, T. S., & Hambrick, D. C. (2006). Attention as the mediator between top management team characteristics and strategic change: The case of airline deregulation. Organization Science, 17(4), 453–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Christensen, C. M. (2006). The ongoing process of building a theory of disruption. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 23(1), 39–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cohen, M. D., March, J. G., & Olsen, J. P. (1972). A garbage can model of organizational choice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Compeau, D. R., & Higgins, C. A. (1995a). Application of social cognitive theory to training for computer skills. Information Systems Research, 6(2), 118–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Compeau, D. R., & Higgins, C. A. (1995b). Computer self-efficacy: Development of a measure and initial test. MIS Quarterly, 19(2), 189–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cook, K. S. (1977). Exchange and power in networks of interoganizational relations. The Sociological Quarterly, 18(1), 62–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Csaszar, F. A., & Siggelkow, N. (2010). How much to copy? Determinants of effective imitation breadth. Organization Science, 21(3), 661–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1975). Play and intrinsic rewards. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 15(3), 41–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cusumano, M. A., Kahl, S. J., & Suarez, F. F. (2015). Services, industry evolution, and the competitive strategies of product firms. Strategic Management Journal, 36(4), 559–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Daniel, F., Lohrke, F. T., Fornaciari, C. J., & Turner, R. A. (2004). Slack resources and firm performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Business Research., 57(6), 565–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Deephouse, D. L. (1999). To be different, or to be the same? It’s a question (and theory) of strategic balance. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), 147–166 http://doi.org/10.2307/3094023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Denicolai, S., Ramirez, M., & Tidd, J. (2014). Creating and capturing value from external knowledge: The moderating role of knowledge intensity. R&D Management, 44(3), 248–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. DeSanctis, G., & Poole, M. (1994). Capturing the complexity in advanced technology use: Adaptive structuration theory. Organization Science, 5(2), 121–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dettmer, H. W. (1997). Goldratt’s theory of constraints: A systems approach to continuous improvement. Milwaukee: ASQ Quality Press.Google Scholar
  45. Dewald, J., & Bowen, F. (2010). Storm clouds and silver linings: Responding to disruptive innovations through cognitive resilience. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34(1), 197–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Eldredge, N., & Gould, S. (1972). Punctuated equilibria: An alternative to phyletic gradualism. In T. J. Schopf (Ed.), Models in paleobiology (pp. 82–115). San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper & Co..Google Scholar
  47. Emerson, R. M. (1962). Power-dependence relations. American Sociological Review, 27(1), 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Enkel, E., & Mezger, F. (2013). Imitation processes and their application for business model innovation: An explorative study. International Journal of Innovation Management, 17(01), 5–39.Google Scholar
  49. Ethiraj, S. K., & Zhu, D. H. (2008). Performance effects of imitative entry. Strategic Management Journal, 29(8), 797–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ethiraj, S. K., Levinthal, D., & Roy, R. R. (2008). The dual role of modularity: Innovation and imitation. Management Science, 54(5), 939–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Festinger, L., & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58(2), 203–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Flores, F., & Ludlow, J. (1980). Doing and speaking in the office. In G. Fick & R. H. Sprague (Eds.), Decision support systems: Issues and challenges (pp. 95–118). New York: Pergamon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Galbraith, J. R. (1973). Designing complex organizations. Boston: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  55. Galbraith, J. R. (1974). Organization design: An information processing view. Interfaces, 4(3), 28–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gersick, C. (1991). Revolutionary change theories: A multilevel exploration of the punctuated equilibrium paradigm. The Academy of Management Review, 16(1), 10–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Giddens, A. (1979). Central problems in social theory: Action, structure, and contradiction in social analysis. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Giddens, A. (1984). The constitution of society: Outline of the theory of structuration. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  59. Giddens, A. (1991). Structuration theory: Past, present and future. In C. G. A. Bryant & D. Jary (Eds.), Giddens’ theory of structuration. A critical appreciation (pp. 201–221). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  60. Gleich, J. (1987). Chaos: Making a new science. New York: Viking.Google Scholar
  61. Goldkuhl, G., & Lyytinen, K. (1982). A language action view of information systems. In: International conference on information systems.Google Scholar
  62. Goldratt, E. M. (1990). Theory of constraints. Croton-on-Hudson: North River.Google Scholar
  63. Habtay, S. R. (2012). A firm-level analysis on the relative difference between technology-driven and market-driven disruptive business model innovations. Creativity and Innovation Management, 21(3), 290–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hall, D., & Saias, M. (1980). Strategy follows structure! Strategic Management Journal, 1(2), 149–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. (1977). The population ecology of organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 82(5), 929–964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (2009). Flow online: Lessons learned and future prospects. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(1), 23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Homans, G. C. (1958). Social behavior as exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 63(6), 597–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Homans, G. C. (1961). Social behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt.Google Scholar
  69. Huseman, R. C., Hatfield, J. D., & Miles, E. W. (1987). A new perspective on equity theory: The equity sensitivity construct. Academy of Management Review, 12(2), 222–234.Google Scholar
  70. Jones, J. W. (1989). Personality and epistemology: Cognitive social learning theory as a philosophy of science. Zygon, 24(1), 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Jones, M. R., & Karsten, H. (2008). Giddens’s structuration theory and information systems research. MIS Quarterly, 32(1), 127–157.Google Scholar
  72. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 263–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1984). Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist, 39(4), 341–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Karababas, S., & Cather, H. (1994). Developing strategic information systems. Integrated Manufacturing Systems, 5(2), 4–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Khanagha, S., Volberda, H., & Oshri, I. (2014). Business model renewal and ambidexterity : Structural alteration and strategy formation process during transition to a Cloud business model. R&D Management, 44(3), 322–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  77. Kolb, D. A., Boyatzis, R. E., & Mainemelis, C. (2001). Experiential learning theory: Previous research and new directions. In Perspectives on thinking learning and cognitive styles (pp. 227–247). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  78. Langer, E. J. (1975). The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(2), 311–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Langer, E. J., & Roth, J. (1975). Heads I win, tails it’s chance: The illusion of control as a function of the sequence of outcomes in a purely chance task. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(6), 951–955.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Levine, S., & White, P. E. (1961). Exchange as a conceptual framework for the study of interorganizational relationships. Administrative Science Quarterly, 5(4), 583–601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lewis, K., & Herndon, B. (2011). Transactive memory systems: Current issues and future research directions. Organization Science, 22(5), 1254–1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lichtenstein, B. M. (1995). Evolution or transformation: A critique and alternative to punctuated equilibrium. In D. P. Moore (Ed.), Academy of management best papers proceedings (pp. 291–295). Madison: Omnipress.Google Scholar
  83. Luehrman, T. A. (1998). Strategy as a portfolio of real options. Harvard Business Review, 76(5), 89–99.Google Scholar
  84. Lyytinen, K. J. (1985). Implications of theories of language for information systems. MIS Quarterly, 9(1), 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mandelbrot, B. B. (1983). The fractal geometry of nature (revised and enlarged ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Co.Google Scholar
  86. March, J. G., & Simon, H. A. (1958). Organizations. New York. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Google Scholar
  87. Markowitz, H. (1952). Portfolio selection. The Journal of Finance, 7(1), 77–91.Google Scholar
  88. Martins, L. L., Rindova, V. P., & Greenbaum, B. E. (2015). Unlocking the hidden value of concepts: A cognitive approach to business model innovation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 9, 99–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McFarlan, W. F. (1981). Portfolio approach to information systems. Harvard Business Review, 59(5), 142–150.Google Scholar
  90. Meyer, J. W., & Rowan, B. (1977). Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83(2), 340–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Micheli, M. R., Berchicci, L., Ocasio, W., & Jansen, J. (2015). How managerial attention shapes business model innovation: Evidence from design industry. Academy of management proceedings, 2015(1), 13407. Academy of Management.Google Scholar
  92. Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review, 63(2), 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Rinehart & Winston.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Montgomery, H., Sharafi, P., & Hedman, L. R. (2004). Engaging in activities involving information technology: Dimensions, modes, and flow. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 46(2), 334–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Morgenstern, O., & Von Neumann, J. (1944). Theory of games and economic behavior. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Myers, S. C. (1977). Determinants of corporate borrowing. Journal of Financial Economics, 5(2), 147–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ocasio, W. (1997). Towards an attention based view of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 18(S1), 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ocasio, W. (2011). Attention to attention. Organization Science, 22(5), 1286–1296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Peltokorpi, V. (2008). Transactive memory systems. Review of General Psychology, 12(4), 378–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Pettigrew, A. M. (1979). On studying organizational cultures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24(4), 570–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Posen, H. E., Lee, J., & Yi, S. (2012). The power of imperfect imitation. Strategic Management Journal, 34(2), 149–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Premkumar, G., Ramamurthy, K., & Saunders, C. S. (2005). Information processing view of organizations: An exploratory examination of fit in the context of interorganizational relationships. Journal of Management Information Systems, 22(1), 257–294.Google Scholar
  103. Presson, P. K., & Benassi, V. A. (1996). Illusion of control: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11(3), 493–510.Google Scholar
  104. Qiu, L., & Benbasat, I. (2005). An investigation into the effects of Text-To-Speech voice and 3D avatars on the perception of presence and flow of live help in electronic commerce. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 12(4), 329–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Rahman, S. U. (1998). Theory of constraints: A review of the philosophy and its applications. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 18(4), 336–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Ren, Y., & Argote, L. (2011). Transactive memory systems 1985–2010: An integrative framework of key dimensions, antecedents, and consequences. The Academy of Management Annals, 5(1), 189–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rivkin, J. W. (2000). Imitation of complex strategies. Management Science, 46(6), 824–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Robertson, R., & Combs, A. (1995). Chaos theory in psychology and the life sciences. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  109. Romanelli, E., & Tushman, M. L. (1994). Organizational transformation as punctuated equilibrium: An empirical test. Academy of Management Review, 37(5), 1141–1166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sabatier, V., Kennard, A., & Mangematin, V. (2012). When technological discontinuities and disruptive business models challenge dominant industry logics : Insights from the drugs industry To cite this version : Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 79(5), 949–962.Google Scholar
  111. Sarasvathy, S. (2001). Causation and effectuation: Toward a theoretical shift from inevitability to economic entrepreneurial contingency. The Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 243–263.Google Scholar
  112. Sarasvathy, S. D. (2008). Effectuation: Elements of entrepreneurial expertise. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Schein, E. H. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  114. Schein, E. H. (1990). Organizational culture. American Psychologist, 45(2), 109–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schein, E. H. (2010). Organizational culture and leadership (Vol. 2). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  116. Schoop, M. (2001). An introduction to the language-action perspective. ACM SIGGROUP Bulletin, 22(2), 3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Simon, H. A. (1947). Administrative behavior; A study of decision-making processes in administrative organization. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  118. Smircich, L. (1983). Concepts of culture and organizational analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28(3), 339–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Stark, J. (2011). Product lifecycle management. London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Teece, D. J. (2010). Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long Range Planning, 43(2–3), 172–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Thomke, S., & Manzi, J. (2014). The discipline of business experimentation. Harvard Business Review, 92(12), 70–79.Google Scholar
  122. Thompson, J. M. T., & Stewart, H. B. (2002). Nonlinear dynamics and chaos. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  123. Tikkanen, H., Lamberg, J.-A., Parvinen, P., & Kallunki, J.-P. (2005). Managerial cognition, action and the business model of the firm. Management Decision, 43(6), 789–809.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Toulmin, S. E. (1958). The uses of argument. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  125. Tushman, M. L., & Anderson, P. (1986). Technological discontinuities and organizational environments. Administrative Science Quaterly, 31(3), 439–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Tushman, M. L., & Romanelli, E. (1985). Organizational evolution: A metamorphisis model of convergence and reorientation. In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 7, pp. 171–222). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  127. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211(4481), 453–458.Google Scholar
  128. Van de Ven, A. H., & Poole, S. M. (1995). Explaining development and change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 20, 510–540.Google Scholar
  129. Walster, E., Berscheid, E., & Walster, G. W. (1973). New directions in equity research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 25(2), 151–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Wegner, D. M. (1986). Transactive memory: A contemporary analysis of the group mind. In B. Mullen & G. R. Goethals (Eds.), Theories of group behavior (pp. 185–205). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  131. Whyte, G. (1986). Escalating commitment to a course of action: A reinterpretation. Academy of Management Review, 11(2), 311–321.Google Scholar
  132. Wicklund, R. A., & Brehm, J. W. (1976). Perspectives on cognitive dissonance. New York: Halsted Press.Google Scholar
  133. Winograd, T. (2006). Designing a new foundation for design. Communications of the ACM, 49(5), 71–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Winograd, T., & Flores, F. (1986). Understanding computers and cognition: A new foundation for design. Boston: Addison-Wesley Professional.Google Scholar
  135. Winterhalter, S., Zeschky, M. B., & Gassmann, O. (2015). Managing dual business models in emerging markets: An ambidexterity perspective. R&D Management, 46, 464–479.Google Scholar
  136. Wood, R., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. The Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 361–384.Google Scholar
  137. Zellner, A. (1988). Optimal information processing and Bayes’s theorem. The American Statistician, 42(4), 278–284.Google Scholar
  138. Zollenkop, M. (2008). Changing business models and their impact on product development. In R. Schwientek, A. Schmidt, R. B. S. Consultants., & P. C. (Online S. Service) (Eds.), Operations excellence smart solutions for business success (pp. 9–23). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and the Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliver Gassmann
    • 1
  • Karolin Frankenberger
    • 2
  • Roman Sauer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Technology ManagementUniversity of St. GallenSt. GallenSwitzerland
  2. 2.Strategic Management and EntrepreneurshipUniversity of LucerneLucerneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations