Some research claims that guanxi is a variant form of social capital, in which resources are derived from interpersonal relationships (Qi 2013). Some research even directly equates guanxi with social capital, claiming that “…guanxi as social capital is accumulated with intention of converting it into economic, political or symbolic capital” (Gold et al. 2002, p. 7). “Guanxi is a form of social investment … or social capital, an important resource that a person can tap into when there is a need to find help or support,” writes Fan (2002, p. 549). Some argue “guanxi is regarded as a form of social capital and includes the network of ties between people and access to the resources” (Wu 2013, p. 49). Since social networks, norms and sanctions are three components of social capital (Halpern 2005), guanxi as network seems to be one of the components of social capital rather than social capital itself. This chapter will review the current literature on the study of guanxi, including theoretical and empirical research evidence in rural and urban settings. The review will address the concepts of guanxi, reciprocity, social distance, cultural dimensions, social capital and Chinese ancient philosophy, especially Confucianism and Taoism. Some concepts, such as guanxi, guanxi practice, la guanxi, and guanxi capital will be clearly defined and distinguished.


Social Capital Social Distance Bonding Social Capital Emotional Feeling Human Feeling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ji Ruan
    • 1
  1. 1.Hanshan Normal UniversityChaozhouChina

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