Skip to main content

Mallory–Weiss Syndrome

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Gastrointestinal Bleeding

Abstract

Gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by gastroesophageal laceration was first reported by Quincke in 1879; however, the association with retching and vomiting was described by Mallory and Weiss in 1929 (Mallory and Weiss, Am J Med Sci, 178:506–514, 1929; Quincke, Deutsch Arch Klin Med, 24(72), 1879). The prevalence of Mallory–Weiss syndrome has been reported at between 3 and 15 % of all patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Sugawa et al., Am J Surg, 145(1):30–3, 1983; van Leerdam, Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol, 22(2):209–24, 2008; Yin et al., Eur J Intern Med, 23(4):e92–6, 2012). Mortality associated with Mallory–Weiss tears has been shown to be similar to gastric and duodenal ulcers in at least one series (Marmo et al., Gastrointest Endosc, 75(2):263–72, 272.e1, 2012). The occurrence of gastroesophageal laceration without hemorrhage is difficult to quantify and their clinical significance is debatable.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 89.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  1. Mallory GK, Weiss S. Hemorrhages from lacerations of the cardiac orifice of the stomach due to vomiting. Am J Med Sci. 1929;178(4):506–14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Quincke H. Ulcus oesophagi ex digestone. Deutsch Arch Klin Med. 1879;24(72).

    Google Scholar 

  3. Sugawa C, Benishek D, Walt AJ. Mallory-Weiss syndrome. A study of 224 patients. Am J Surg. 1983;145(1):30–3.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. van Leerdam ME. Epidemiology of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2008;22(2):209–24.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Yin A, Li Y, Jiang Y, Liu J, Luo H. Mallory-Weiss syndrome: clinical and endoscopic characteristics. Eur J Intern Med. 2012;23(4):e92–6.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Marmo R et al. Mortality from nonulcer bleeding is similar to that of ulcer bleeding in high-risk patients with nonvariceal hemorrhage: a prospective database study in Italy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2012;75(2):263–72. 272.e1.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Kim JW et al. Mallory-Weiss Tear during Esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2015;9(1):62–7.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Penston JG, Boyd EJ, Wormsley KG. Mallory-Weiss tears occurring during endoscopy: a report of seven cases. Endoscopy. 1992;24(4):262–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Santoro MJ, Chen YK, Collen MJ. Polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution-induced Mallory-Weiss tears. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993;88(8):1292–3.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Gilbert DA, Silverstein FE, Tedesco FJ. National ASGE survey on upper gastrointestinal bleeding: complications of endoscopy. Dig Dis Sci. 1981;26(7 Suppl):55S–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Knauer CM. Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Characterization of 75 Mallory-Weiss lacerations in 528 patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Gastroenterology. 1976;71(1):5–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Harris JM, DiPalma JA. Clinical significance of Mallory-Weiss tears. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993;88(12):2056–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Younes Z, Johnson DA. The spectrum of spontaneous and iatrogenic esophageal injury: perforations, Mallory-Weiss tears, and hematomas. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1999;29(4):306–17.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Bharucha AE, Gostout CJ, Balm RK. Clinical and endoscopic risk factors in the Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997;92(5):805–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Kortas DY et al. Mallory-Weiss tear: predisposing factors and predictors of a complicated course. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(10):2863–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Kim JW et al. Predictive factors of recurrent bleeding in Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2005;46(6):447–54.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Barkun AN et al. International consensus recommendations on the management of patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152(2):101–13.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Laine L, Jensen DM. Management of patients with ulcer bleeding. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107(3):345–60. quiz 361.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Bataller R et al. Endoscopic sclerotherapy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to the Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol. 1994;89(12):2147–50.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Llach J et al. Endoscopic injection therapy in bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Gastrointest Endosc. 2001;54(6):679–81.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Peng YC et al. Efficacy of endoscopic isotonic saline-epinephrine injection for the management of active Mallory-Weiss tears. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2001;32(2):119–22.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Laine L. Multipolar electrocoagulation in the treatment of active upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage. A prospective controlled trial. N Engl J Med. 1987;316(26):1613–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Cho YS et al. Endoscopic band ligation and endoscopic hemoclip placement for patients with Mallory-Weiss syndrome and active bleeding. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(13):2080–4.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Huang SP et al. Endoscopic hemoclip placement and epinephrine injection for Mallory-Weiss syndrome with active bleeding. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002;55(7):842–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Shimoda R et al. Endoscopic hemostasis with metallic hemoclips for iatrogenic Mallory-Weiss tear caused by endoscopic examination. Dig Endosc. 2009;21(1):20–3.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Yamaguchi Y et al. Endoscopic hemoclipping for upper GI bleeding due to Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Gastrointest Endosc. 2001;53(4):427–30.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Yuan Y, Wang C, Hunt RH. Endoscopic clipping for acute nonvariceal upper-GI bleeding: a meta-analysis and critical appraisal of randomized controlled trials. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;68(2):339–51.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Lecleire S et al. Endoscopic band ligation could decrease recurrent bleeding in Mallory-Weiss syndrome as compared to haemostasis by hemoclips plus epinephrine. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2009;30(4):399–405.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Park CH et al. A prospective, randomized trial of endoscopic band ligation vs. epinephrine injection for actively bleeding Mallory-Weiss syndrome. Gastrointest Endosc. 2004;60(1):22–7.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Ivekovic H, et al. The esophagus as a working channel: successful closure of a large Mallory-Weiss tear with clips and an endoloop. Endoscopy. 2011;43 Suppl 2 UCTN:E170.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Skinner M et al. Over-the-scope clip placement is effective rescue therapy for severe acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Endosc Int Open. 2014;2(1):E37–40.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Clark RA. Intraarterial vasopressin infusion for treatment of Mallory-Weiss tears of the esophagogastric junction. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1979;133(3):449–51.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Walker TG. Acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Tech Vasc Interv Radiol. 2009;12(2):80–91.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to M. Stanley Branch M.D. .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing AG

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Spaete, J.P., Branch, M.S. (2016). Mallory–Weiss Syndrome. In: Pryor, A., Pappas, T., Branch, M. (eds) Gastrointestinal Bleeding. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40646-6_7

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40646-6_7

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-40644-2

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-40646-6

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics