Serious Games pp 211-241 | Cite as

Multiplayer Serious Games

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter covers the topic of multiplayer serious games. Multiplayer games are discussed in terms of game types and forms, genres and techniques, as well as their impact on the use of multiplayer games. Based on that, this chapter will show how different types of multiplayer genres and techniques can be used for various serious game purposes. This chapter further provides an introduction to the topic of collaborative learning and collaborative multiplayer games—and their use for game-based collaborative learning. We discuss how collaborative learning concepts are inherently used by some massive multiplayer online games, and how those concepts can be used more thoroughly by using the multiplayer paradigm for game-based collaborative learning. Further, it is shown how various multiplayer design aspects like number of players, persistency, matchmaking, interaction, or social aspects need to be considered in the design phase of a multiplayer game.

Recommended Literature

  1. Adams E. (2014) Fundamentals of game design. Pearson Education. “Chapter 2: Online gaming” is a comprehensive introduction to online gaming with a focus on online gaming design issues like persistency Google Scholar
  2. Armitage G, Claypool M, Branch P. (2006) Networking and online games: understanding and engineering multiplayer Internet games. John Wiley & Sons. This book covers the history of online and multiplayer games and discusses more closely current multiplayer game types like FPS, RTS games, or MMOGs. It further details the influence of technology and Internet architecture on networked multiplayer games Google Scholar
  3. Habgood J, Overmars M (2006) Game Design: Balance in Multiplayer Games, book chapter in The Game Maker’s Apprentice, Apress, 211–222. An introduction to designing multiplayer games with a focus on balance and meaningful choices Google Scholar
  4. McGonigal, J. (2011) Reality Is Broken: Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World. The Penguin Press HC. The book illustrates manifold examples of well-designed game prototypes, which use multiplayer concepts and real-world interactions. As such, the book is a strong inspiration for quest design, rule balancing, and dynamics when multiple players depend on each other. Most examples serve as proof of how social interactions in games can not only lead to benefits for the gamers, but also for the real world around them Google Scholar
  5. Huizinga, J. (2014) Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play-Element in Culture. Martino Fine Books—If not recommended in other chapters already, this book needs your full attention. It is not an educational book in a classical meaning, but a classical book about humans faible for playing, the socio-cultural integration of play and the meaning for each individual’s development. As such, the book highlights the multiplayer aspect from a totally non-technical perspective, which leads to fresh insights for everyone with technical mindsets when designing multiplayer games Google Scholar

References

  1. Armitage G, Claypool M, Branch P (2006) Networking and online games: understanding and engineering multiplayer Internet games. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandura A (2002) Social foundations of thought and action. In: Marks DF (ed) The health psychology reader, chapter 6, pp 94–106. SAGE. ISBN 0761972706Google Scholar
  3. Bowers C, Salas E, Prince C, Brannick M (1992) Games teams play: a method for investigating team coordination and performance. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 4(4):503–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Casual Connect Research (2012) Social network games 2012—casual games sector reportGoogle Scholar
  5. Cavanaugh R, Ellis M (2004) Automating the process of assigning students to cooperative-learning teams. In: Proceedings of the 2004 American society for engineering education annual conference & expositionGoogle Scholar
  6. Childress MD, Braswell R (2006) Using massively multiplayer online roleplaying games for online learning. Distance Educ 27(2):187–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Damon W (1984) Peer education: the untapped potential. J Appl Dev Psychol 5(4):331–343. ISSN 01933973Google Scholar
  8. Delwiche A (2006) Massively multiplayer online games (MMOs) in the new media classroom. Educ Technol Soc 9(3):160–172Google Scholar
  9. Denny P, Luxton-Reilly A, Hamer J (2008) The PeerWise system of student contributed assessment questions. In: Proceedings of the tenth Australasian computing education conference (ACE2008). Wollongong, Australia, pp 69–74Google Scholar
  10. Dickey MD (2007) Game design and learning: a conjectural analysis of how massively multiple online role-playing games (MMORPGs) foster intrinsic motivation. Educ Technol Res Dev 55(3):253–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dillenbourg P (1999) What do you mean by collaborative learning? In: Dillenbourg P (ed) Collaborative-learning: cognitive and computational approaches. Elsevier, Oxford, pp 1–19Google Scholar
  12. Doise W, Mugny G, Perret-Clermont AN (1975) Social interaction and the development of cognitive operations. Eur J Soc Psychol 5(3):367–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ducheneaut N, Moore RJ (2004) The social side of gaming: a study of interaction patterns in a massively multiplayer online game. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM conference on computer supported cooperative work (CSCW’04), ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 360–369Google Scholar
  14. El-Nasr MS, Aghabeigi B, Milam D, Erfani M, Lameman B, Maygoli H, Mah S (2010) Understanding and evaluating cooperative games. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on human factors in computing systems, pp 253–262, ACMGoogle Scholar
  15. Elo AE (1978) The rating of chessplayers, past and present. Arco Pub, ISBN 0-668-04721-6Google Scholar
  16. Eustace K, Lee M, Fellows G, Bytheway A, Irving L (2004) The application of massively multiplayer online role playing games to collaborative learning and teaching practice in schools. In: Atkinson R, McBeath C, Jonas-Dwyer D, Phillips R (eds), Beyond the comfort zone: proceedings of the 21st ASCILITE conferenceGoogle Scholar
  17. Garris R, Ahlers R, Driskell JE (2002) Games, motivation, and learning: a research and practice model. Simul Gaming 33(4):441–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gee JP (2003) What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy. Comput Entertain 1(1):20–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gee JP (2009) Deep learning properties of good digital games. In: Ritterfeld U, Cody MJ, Vorderer P (eds) Serious games: mechanisms and effects. Routledge, New York, pp 67–82Google Scholar
  20. Glickman M (1995) The glicko system. Boston University, Boston, pp 1–5Google Scholar
  21. Gogoulou A, Gouli E, Boas G, Liakou E, Grigoriadou M (2007) Forming homogeneous, heterogeneous and mixed groups of learners. In: Brusilovsky P, Grigoriadou M, Papanikolaou K (eds) Proceedings of workshop on personalisation in e-Learning environments at individual and group level, 11th international conference on user modeling, pp 33–40Google Scholar
  22. Herbrich R, Minka T, Graepel T (2006) Trueskill™: a bayesian skill rating system. In: Advances in neural information processing systems, pp 569–576Google Scholar
  23. Haake J, Schwabe G, Wessner M (2004) CSCL-Kompendium—Lehr- und Handbuch zum computerunterstützten kooperativen Lernen. Oldenbourg WissenschaftsverlagGoogle Scholar
  24. Hare AP (1981) Group size. Am Behav Sci 24(5):695–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hämäläinen R (2011) Using a game environment to foster collaborative learning: a design-based study. Technol Pedagog Educ 20(1):61–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Herz J (2001) Gaming the system: what higher education can learn from multiplayer online worlds. EDUCAUSE Publications from the Internet and the University Forum, The Internet and the University: Forum, pp 169–291Google Scholar
  27. Hindriks J, Pancs R (2002) Free riding on altruism and group size. J Public Econ Theor 4(3):335–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Inaba A, Supnithi T, Ikeda M, Mizoguchi R, Toyoda J (2000) How can we form effective collaborative learning groups? In: 5th international conference on ITS. Springer, Montreal, Canada, pp 282–291Google Scholar
  29. Johnson DW, Johnson RT (1999) Making cooperative learning work. Theory Pract 38(2):67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Johnson DW, Johnson RT (2009) An educational psychology success story: social interdependence theory and cooperative learning. Educ Res 38(5):365–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kato M, Cole SW, Bradlyn AS, Pollock BH (2008) A video game improves behavioral outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a randomized trial. Pediatrics 122(2):305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kidwell RE, Bennett N (1993) Employee propensity to withhold effort: A conceptual model to intersect three avenues of research. Acad Manag Rev 18(3):429–456Google Scholar
  33. Konert J (2014a) Related work. In: Interactive multimedia learning: using social media for peer education in single player educational games. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 11–48. ISBN 9783319102566Google Scholar
  34. Konert J (2014b) Approach and concept for social serious games creation. In: Interactive multimedia learning: using social media for peer education in single player educational games. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 49–60. ISBN 9783319102566Google Scholar
  35. Konert J, Richter K, Mehm F, Göbel S, Bruder R, Steinmetz R (2012) PEDALE—A peer education diagnostic and learning environment. J Educ Technol Soc 15:27–38Google Scholar
  36. Konert J, Burlak D, Steinmetz R (2014) The group formation problem: An algorithmic approach to learning group formation. In: Rensing C, de Freitas S, Ley T, Muñoz-Merino PJ (eds) Proceedings of the 9th european conference on technology enhanced learning (EC-TEL). Springer, Berlin, Graz, Austria, pp 221–234Google Scholar
  37. Larusson JA, Alterman R (2009) Wikis to support the collaborative part of collaborative learning. Int J Comput Support Collab Learn 4(4):371–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lester J (2013) The cave interview| Ron Gilbert on cavernous depths & the state of adventure games. http://www.dealspwn.com/ron-gilbert-interview-cave-125244. Accessed 03 Aug 2015
  39. Lin J (2013) The science behind shaping player behavior in online games. Talk at GDC 2013. http://gdcvault.com/play/1017940/The-Science-Behind-Shaping-Player. Accessed 05 Aug 2015
  40. Lin J (2014) Enhancing sportsmanship in online games. Talk at GDC 2014. http://www.gdcvault.com/play/1020389/Enhancing-Sportsmanship-in-Online. Accessed 05 Aug 2015
  41. Manninen T (2003) Interaction forms and communicative actions in multiplayer games. Game Stud 3(1)Google Scholar
  42. Mitchell A, Savill-Smith C (2004) The use of computer and video games for learning: a review of the literature. Learning and Skills Development Agency London, Great BritainGoogle Scholar
  43. Ounnas A, Davis H, Millard D (2008) A framework for semantic group formation. In: Eighth IEEE international conference on advanced learning technologies, pp 34–38Google Scholar
  44. Paredes P, Ortigosa A, Rodriguez P (2010) A method for supporting heterogeneous group formation through heuristics and visualization. J Univ Comput Sci 16(19):2882–2901Google Scholar
  45. Paris CR, Salas E, Cannon-Bowers JA (2000) Teamwork in multi-person systems: a review and analysis. Ergonomics 43(8):1052–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Piaget J (2003) Meine Theorie der geistigen Entwicklung. Beltz GmbH, Julius. ISBN 3407221428Google Scholar
  47. Prensky M (2006) Don’t bother me, mom, I’m learning!: How computer and video games are preparing your kids for 21st century success and how you can help!. Paragon house, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  48. Reuter C, Wendel V, Göbel S, Steinmetz R (2012) Multiplayer adventures for collaborative learning with serious games. In: Felicia P (ed) Proceedings of the 6th european conference on games-based learning, Academic Conferences Limited, pp 416–423Google Scholar
  49. Roschelle J, Teasley SD (1995) The construction of shared knowledge in collaborative problem solving. In: O’Malley C (ed) Computer-supported collaborative learning. Springer, Berlin, pp 69–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Runge J, Gao P, Garcin F, Faltings B (2014) Churn prediction for high-value players in casual social games. In: 2014 IEEE conference computational intelligence Games, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  51. Shapiro MJ, Gardner R, Godwin SA, Jay GD, Lindquist DG, Salisbury ML, Salas E (2008) Defining team performance for simulation-based training: Methodology, metrics, and opportunities for emergency medicine. Acad Emerg Med 5(11):1088–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stahl G, Koschmann T, Suthers D (2006) Cambridge Handbook of the learning sciences, chapter computer-supported collaborative learning: an historical perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 409–426Google Scholar
  53. Statista (2013) Average daily time spent playing online games worldwide in April 2013, by region (in minutes) http://www.statista.com/statistics/261264/time-spent-playing-online-games-worldwide-by-region/. Accessed 25 November 2015
  54. Statista (2014) Leading massively multiplayer online (MMO) games worldwide from January to September 2014, by revenue (in million U.S. dollars). http://www.statista.com/statistics/343075/mmo-games-revenue/. Accessed 25 November 2015
  55. Steinkuehler CA (2004) Learning in massively multiplayer online games. In: ICLS’04: proceedings of the 6th international conference on learning sciences. International Society of the Learning Sciences, pp 521–528Google Scholar
  56. Sweetser P, Wyeth P (2005) GameFlow: a model for evaluating player enjoyment in games. Comput Entertain (CIE) 3(3):1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. TeamUp (2015) TeamUp http://thebarngames.nl/teamup/. Accessed 25 November 2015
  58. Thomson AT, Perry JL, Miller TK (2009) Conceptualizing and measuring collaboration. J Publc Adm Res Theor 19(1):23–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Tychsen A (2008) Tales for the many: Process and authorial control in multiplayer role-playing games. ICIDS’08: proceedings of the 1st joint international conference on interactive digital storytelling. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 309–320Google Scholar
  60. Tychsen A, Hitchens M, Brolund T, Kavakli M (2005) The game master. In: Proceedings of the second Australasian conference on interactive entertainment. Creativity & Cognition Studios Press, pp 215–222Google Scholar
  61. Vorderer P, Hartmann T, Klimmt C (2003). Explaining the enjoyment of playing video games: The role of competition. In: Proceedings of the second international conference on Entertainment computing. Carnegie Mellon University, pp 1–9Google Scholar
  62. Voulgari I, Komis V (2008) Massively multi-user online games: the emergence of effective collaborative activities for learning. In: DIGITEL’08: proceedings of the 2008 second IEEE international conference on digital game and intelligent toy enhanced learning, IEEE Computer Society, pp 132–134Google Scholar
  63. Vygotsky LS (1997) Interaction between learning and development. Readings on the development of children, pp 29–36Google Scholar
  64. Welch TA (1984) A technique for high performance data compression. IEEE Comput 17(6):8–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wendel V, Göbel S, Steinmetz R (2012) Game mastering in collaborative multiplayer serious games. In: Göbel S, Müller W, Urban B, Wiemeyer J (eds) e-Learning and games for training, education, health and sports—LNCS, vol 7516. Darmstadt, Germany, Springer, pp 23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Westera W, Wagemans L (2007) Help me! Online learner support through the self-organised allocation of peer tutors. In: Abstracts of the 13th international conference on technology supported learning & training. ICEW GmbH, Berlin, pp 105–107Google Scholar
  67. Wohn DY, Lampe C, Wash R, Ellison N, Vitak J (2011) The “s” in social network games: Initiating, maintaining, and enhancing relationships. In: 2011 44th Hawaii international conference system science, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  68. Yee N (2005) Motivations of play in MMORPGsGoogle Scholar
  69. Zagal J P, Rick J, His I (2006) Collaborative games: lessons learned from board games. Simul Gaming 37(1):24–40Google Scholar
  70. Zea NP, Sánchez JLG, Gutiérrez FL (2009) Collaborative learning by means of video games: an entertainment system in the learning processes. In: ICALT’09: proceedings of the 2009 ninth IEEE international conference on advanced learning technologies. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC, USA, pp 215–217Google Scholar
  71. Zhang L, Wu J, Wang ZC, Wang CJ (2010) A factor-based model for contextsensitive skill rating systems. Proc Int Conf Tools Artif Intell ICTAI 2:249–255Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Technische Universität DarmstadtDarmstadtGermany
  2. 2.Beuth University of Applied Sciences BerlinBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations