Gender and Universal Rights: Dilemmas and Anthropological Engagement

  • Siri Lange
  • Inge Tvedten
Chapter
Part of the Approaches to Social Inequality and Difference book series (ATSIAD)

Abstract

Scandinavian countries lead most rankings on gender equality and women’s rights. Anthropologists who work in development are continuously confronted with perceptions and practises countering the type of universal rights in question. This chapter examines the ways that anthropologists engage with sensitive issues of gender rights in development cooperation. With reference to the issue of gay rights in Tanzania and polygamy in Mozambique, it is argued that the role of applied anthropology should be to produce research-based knowledge on the situation of poor and vulnerable men and women—who are the ultimate target of all Scandinavian aid programs. Research of this type must give equal emphasis to relevance and scientific rigor and be methodologically innovative in order to relate to time and resource constraints and reach central decision-makers.

Keywords

Aid Gender Anthropology Tanzania Mozambique 

References

  1. Barth, Fredrik. 1994. A Personal View of Present Tasks and Priorities in Cultural and Social Anthropology. In Assessing Cultural Anthropology, ed. Robert Borofsky. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  2. Biruk, Crystal. 2014. ‘Aid for Gays’: The Moral and the Material in ‘African Homophobia’ in Post-2009 Malawi. The Journal of Modern African Studies 52(03): 447–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bosia, Michael J. 2014. Strange Fruit: Homophobia, the State, and the Politics of LGBT Rights and Capabilities. Journal of Human Rights 13(3): 256–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cowan, Jane K., Marie-Bénédicte Dembour, and Richard A. Wilson, eds. 2001. Introduction. In Culture and Rights: Anthropological Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Crewe, Emma, and Richard Axelby. 2013. Anthropology and Development. Culture, Morality and Poltics in a Globalised World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Daily News. 2012. Tanzania: ‘No’ to Same Sex Marriages—Govt. http://allafrica.com/stories/201206210145.html. Accessed 3 December 2015.
  7. Desai, Sameeksha. 2009. Measuring Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries. WIDER Working Paper 2009/10 Helsinki: UNU-WIDER.Google Scholar
  8. Development Today. 2014. Aid as a Weapon Against Uganda Anti-Gay bill. Development Today, March 6. http://www.development-today.com/magazine/2014/dt_2/news/aid:as_a_weapon_against_uganda_anti-gay_bill
  9. DFID. 2012. Equality and Diversity Report. London: DFID.Google Scholar
  10. Edelman, Marc, and Angelique Haugerud, eds. 2005. Introduction: The Anthropology of Development Globalization. In The Anthropology of Development and Globalization. Malden: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  11. Eggen, Øyvind, and Kjell Roland. 2014. Western Aid at a Crossroads: The End of Paternalism. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Escobar, Arturo. 1991. Anthropology and the Development Encounter: The Making and Marketing of Development Anthropology. American Anthropologist 18(4): 658–682.Google Scholar
  13. Ferguson, James. 1999. Expectations of Modernity. Myths and Meanings of Urban Life on the Zambian Copperbelt. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Human Rights Council. 2011. Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review. United Republic of Tanzania. A/HRC/19/4. Geneva: United Nations.Google Scholar
  15. INE. 2012. Mocambique. Inquerito Demográfico e de Saúde. Maputo: Instituto National de Estatística.Google Scholar
  16. Jobson, Geoffrey, Helen Struthers, and James McIntyre. 2015. ‘In the fell clutch of circumstance’: HIV and men who have sex with men in Sub-Saharan Africa. Current HIV/AIDS Reports 12(1): 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jones, Nicola, Inge Tvedten, Angélica Arbulú, Paola Pereznieto, Johanna Lindström, and Mari Norbakk. 2015. Evaluation of Norway’s support to women’s rights and gender equality in development cooperation. In Norad Evaluation Report 2/2015. Oslo: Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation.Google Scholar
  18. Kahema, Collins. M., John Kashiha, David Kuria Mbote, and Michael R. Mhando. 2014. BAMBUCHA MEDIA: Using social media to build social capital and health seeking behaviour among key populations. Digital Culture & Education 6(3): 82–94.Google Scholar
  19. Lange, Siri. 2002. Managing Modernity. Gender, State and Nation in the Popular Drama of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Ph.D thesis, Department of Social Anthropology, University of Bergen, Bergen.Google Scholar
  20. Lange, Siri, and Marit Tjomsland. 2014. Partnership, Policy Making and Conditionality in the Gender Field: The Case of Tanzania. Africa Today 60(4): 67–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lewis, David. 2005. Antropology and Development: The Uneasy Relationship. In A Handbook of Economic Anthropology, ed. James G. Carrier, 472–486. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  22. Mbuthia, Richard. 2011. Africa, Want Aid? Recognise Gay Rights! Daily News, December 26. http://www.dailynews.co.tz/feature/?n=26715&cat=feature. Accessed 5 October 2012.
  23. McNamara, Thomas. 2014. Not the Malawi of Our Parents: Attitudes Toward Homosexuality and Perceived Westernisation in Northern Malawi. African Studies 73(1): 84–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. MDP. 2010. Poverty and Well-Being in Mozambique: Third National Poverty Assessment. Maputo: Ministry of Planning and Development.Google Scholar
  25. Mercer, Claire. 2003. Performing Partnership: Civil Society and the Illusions of Good Governance in Tanzania. Political Geography 22(7): 741–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. MFA. 1997. A Strategy for Women and Gender Equality in Development Cooperation. Oslo: Ministry of Foreign Affairs.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 2007. Action Plan for Women’s Rights and Gender Equality in Development Cooperation 2007–2009. Extended for the period 2010–2013. Oslo: Norwegian Minsitry of Foreign Affairs.Google Scholar
  28. ———. 2014. Meld. St. 10 (2014–2015): Muligheter for alle—menneskerettighetene som mål og middel i utenriks-og utviklingspolitikken. Oslo: Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.Google Scholar
  29. Mmbaga, Elia.J., Mbulla J. Dodo, Germana H. Leyna, Kåre Moen, and Melkizedeck T. Leshabari. 2012. Sexual Practices and Perceived Susceptibility to HIV Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Dar Es Salaam, Mainland Tanzania. Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research S1(012): 1–6.Google Scholar
  30. Moen, Kåre, Peter Aggleton, Melkizedeck.T. Leshabari, and Anne-Lise Middelthon. 2012. Not At All So Hard-to-Reach: Same-Sex Attracted Men in Dar es Salaam. Culture, Health & Sexuality 14(2): 195–208.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 2014. Gays, Guys, and Mchicha Mwiba: Same-Sex Relations and Subjectivities in Dar es Salaam. Journal of Homosexuality 61(4): 511–539.Google Scholar
  32. Mosse, David. 2005. Global Governance and the Ethnography of International Aid. In The Aid Effect. Giving and Governing in International Development, eds. David Mosse and David Lewis, 1–36. Ann Arbor: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  33. ———. 2011. Adventures in Aidland. The Anthropology of Professionals in International Development. New York: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  34. Muga, Emmanuel. 2014.“Dar Plans to Introduce Tougher Anti-Gay Bill. The East African, March 29.Google Scholar
  35. Nyanzi, Stella, and Andrew Karamagi. 2015. The Social-Political Dynamics of the Anti-Homosexuality Legislation in Uganda. Agenda 29(1): 24–38.Google Scholar
  36. OECD. 2005. The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation in Development.Google Scholar
  37. ———. 2015. Development Aid Stable in 2014 But FLOWS to Poorest Countries Still Falling. http://www.oecd.org/development/development-aid-stable-in-2014-but-flows-to-poorest-countries-still-falling.htm. Accessed 3 December 2015.
  38. Otunba, Ganiyu Temitope. 2014. Enhancing LGBT Rights in Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria.Google Scholar
  39. RdM. 2004. Lei da Família. Lei no. 10/2004. Maputo: República de Moçambique.Google Scholar
  40. Rodriguez, Annika W. 2012. Gender and Sexuality in Norwegian Development Policy and Practice. The Introduction of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Norwegian Development Cooperation. MA thesis, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo.Google Scholar
  41. SADC. 2012. SADC Gender Protocol 2012. Gaborone: Southern Africa Development Community.Google Scholar
  42. Sadgrove, Joanna, Robert M. Vanderbeck, Johan Andersson, Gill Valentine, and Kevin Ward. 2012. “Morality Plays and Money Matters: Towards a Situated Understanding of the Politics of Homosexuality in Uganda”. The Journal of Modern African Studies 50 (01): 103–129.Google Scholar
  43. Selbervik, Hilde, and Marit Tolo Østebø. 2013. Gender Equality in International Aid: What Has Norwegian Gender Politics Got To Do With It? Gender, Technology and Development 17(2): 205–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sida. 2010. Terms of Reference. Implementation of Reality Checks in Niassa Province, Mozambique. Maputo, Mozambique: Swedish International Development Agency.Google Scholar
  45. Singer, Merrill. 2015. Public Anthropology and Structural Engagement. In Public Anthropology in a Borderless World, eds. Sam Beck and Carl A. Maida. New York: Berghahn.Google Scholar
  46. Tvedt, Terje. 2005. Utviklingshjelp, utenrikspolitikk og makt: Den norske modellen. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.Google Scholar
  47. Tvedten, Inge, Margarida Paulo, and Georgina Montserrat. 2008. Gender Policies and Feminisation of Poverty in Mozambique. CMI Report, 13. Bergen, Chr. Michelsen Institute.Google Scholar
  48. Tvedten, Inge, Margarida Paulo, and Minna Tuominen. 2009. ‘If Men and Women Were Equal, We Would All Simply Be People’. Gender and Poverty in Northern Mozambique. CMI Report, 14. Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute.Google Scholar
  49. ———. 2010. ‘A Woman Should Not Be the Boss When a Man is Present’. Gender and Poverty in Southern Mozambique. CMI Report, 7. Bergen: Chr. Michelsen Institute.Google Scholar
  50. Tvedten, Inge, Minna Tuominen, and Carmeliza Rosário. 2011–2015. Reality Checks in Mozambique. Annual Reports. Stockholm/Maputo: Sida/Swedish Embassy.Google Scholar
  51. Tvedten, Inge, Carmeliza Rosário, Sheila Faquir, and Fumo Chacuro. 2015. Evaluation of Norway’s Support to Women’s Rights and Gender Equality in Development Cooperation. Mozambique Case Study Report. In Norad Evaluation Report 2/2015. Oslo: Norad/Evaluation Department.Google Scholar
  52. UNDP. 2014. Human Development Report 2014. Sustaining Human Progress: Reducing Vulnerabilities and Building Resilience. New York: United Nations Development Programme.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Valenza, Alessia. 2011. Anti-Gay Backlash in Tanzania as State Reacts to Proposed UK Aid Cuts for Homophobia. 11 November http://ilga.org/anti-gay-backlash-in-tanzania-as-state-reacts-to-proposed-uk-aid-cuts-for-homophobia/. ILGA 2011. Accessed 27 May 2015.
  54. Valois, Caroline. 2014. Virtual Access: The Ugandan ‘Anti-Gay’ Movement, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Blogging and the Public Sphere. Journal of Eastern African Studies 9(1): 145–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. WEF. 2014. The Global Gender Gap Report 2014. Geneve, Switzerland: World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
  56. Wilson, Richard A., ed. 1997. Human Rights, Culture and Context: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  57. World Bank. 1998. Partnership for Development: Proposed Actions for the World Bank. Discussion Paper, Partnerships Group, World Bank, Washington, DC, May 20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siri Lange
    • 1
  • Inge Tvedten
    • 1
  1. 1.Chr. Michelsen InstituteBergenNorway

Personalised recommendations