Omega-3 Milk

  • Anand Arvind Zanwar
  • Yogesh S. Badhe
  • Subhash L. Bodhankar
  • Prakash B. Ghorpade
  • Mahabaleshwar V. Hegde


Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is important constituent in human breast milk. Omega-3-fatty acid (n-3-FA) plays an important role in infants post birth development; omega-3-fatty acids are obtained from breast milk. Traditionally, cattle grazed in the field and get some omega-3 fatty acid from the green pastures. However, now, they are fed with defined diet solely for getting high milk yield, which resulted in deficiency in omega-3 fatty acid in milk. Various attempts have been made to fortify food products with omega-3 fatty acid. Fortification of food with n-3-FA may offer an effective way of increasing omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes. Recent data indicate that blend of dairy lipids and omega-3-fatty acid from vegetarian oil, can potentiate higher levels of n-3 LC-PUFA levels endogenously. Enriching cattle milk by feeding omega-3-rich cattle feed is also not straight forward. Biofortification is not possible and is met with a biological hurdle in the cattle, as they are ruminants. Several attempts have been made to fortify milk with omega-3 fatty acid or preparation of omega-3-fortified formula milk for infants. Further this chapter reviews crucial role of omega-3-milk in human health especially in mother and child health.


Omega-3 fatty acid Omega-3 milk Fortification Formula milk 

List of abbreviations


Alpha-linolenic acid


Omega-3 fatty acid


Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid


Linoleic acid


Essential fatty acids


Docosahexaenoic acid


Eicosapentaenoic acid


Arachidonic acid


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anand Arvind Zanwar
    • 1
  • Yogesh S. Badhe
    • 1
  • Subhash L. Bodhankar
    • 2
  • Prakash B. Ghorpade
    • 1
  • Mahabaleshwar V. Hegde
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Innovation in Nutrition Health Disease, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Medical College CampusBharati Vidyapeeth Deemed UniversityPuneIndia
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, Poona College of PharmacyBharati Vidyapeeth Deemed UniversityPuneIndia

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