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Role of Antioxidants in Human Health

  • Jeganathan Manivannan
  • Thangarasu Silambarasan
  • Janakiraman Shanthakumar
  • Natarajan Suganya
  • Shankar Kanchana
Chapter

Abstract

Association of diet with human health and disease has been known for centuries. Because of humans’ geographical origin, the diet and its compositional variability are high among populations. Human diet, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and other animal sources has rich sources of bioactive molecules and antioxidants. Majority of human diet derived from plant sources, which contains polyphenols including flavonoids and phenolic acids, accounted for 90 %, and most of them possess antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress owing to excess of free radicals not neutralized by antioxidant defense enzymes leads to several degenerative diseases including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), diabetes, kidney disease, cancer, neurological disorders, obesity, and aging. Hence, antioxidant dietary supplements are the attractive strategy to overcome these diseases. Therefore, in this chapter, we have focused on the overview of diet, antioxidants, and function of various plant antioxidant constituents. Furthermore, we have illustrated the role of oxidative stress on various diseases including CVD, cancer, and diabetes. Beneficial effects of various antioxidants and other antioxidant system stimulators on in vitro and in vivo models are explained. Along with this, we provide notable evidences from clinical trials using antioxidants on various diseases.

Keywords

Oxidative stress Antioxidant Cardiovascular disease Diabetes Chronic kidney disease Cancer Neurodegenerative disease 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeganathan Manivannan
    • 1
    • 3
  • Thangarasu Silambarasan
    • 3
  • Janakiraman Shanthakumar
    • 3
  • Natarajan Suganya
    • 2
  • Shankar Kanchana
    • 3
  1. 1.Systems Biology and Medicine LabAU-KBC Research Centre, MIT campus, Anna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.AU-KBC Research Centre, Anna UniversityChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Faculty of ScienceAnnamalai UniversityChidambaramIndia

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