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Balancing Omega-6: Omega-3 Ratios in Oilseeds

  • Tejas P. Chirmade
  • Smrati Sanghi
  • Ashwini V. Rajwade
  • Vidya S. Gupta
  • Narendra Y. Kadoo
Chapter

Abstract

Fats and oils are the essential constituents of human diet, and nearly 80 % of these are obtained from plants. The predominant fatty acids present in plant oils are saturated and unsaturated compounds with straight aliphatic chains of carbon atoms and a single carboxyl group. Depending on the position of the first double bond from the methyl (ω) end in the fatty acyl chain, the mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids can be denoted as ω-9, ω-6, or ω-3. Excess consumption of ω-6 fatty acids has greatly and unfavorably increased the ω-6: ω-3 ratio up to 25:1, which is associated with prevalence of many negative health effects, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, osteoporosis, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Because the ω-3 fatty acids (FAs) are the precursors for synthesis of anti-inflammatory eicosanoids, balancing the ω-6: ω-3 ratio is vital. The easiest approach to achieve this would be consumption of oils rich in ω-3 FAs, such as linseed oil. Alternatively, the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in plants producing high ω-6 FAs can be altered by biotechnological means, so that they produce higher proportion of ω-3 FAs. This chapter describes the current knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in plants, including the genes involved, their temporal and spatial expression patterns, and various fluxes that they drive. The choice of oilseeds, genes, and promoters for modulating the fatty acid biosynthesis flux from ω-6 to ω-3 fatty acids is also dealt with. The potential hurdles in achieving these and possible solutions have also been described.

Keywords

Omega-6 Omega-3 PUFA LC-PUFA Fatty acid biosynthesis pathway EPA DHA 

Notes

Acknowledgments

TPC acknowledges the Senior Research Fellowship from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India, and SS acknowledges the INSPIRE Fellowship from the Department of Science and Technology (DST), India. Financial support in the form of DBT Bio-CARe grant (GAP 308426) to AVR, and CSIR (CSC 0112) and ICAR (GAP 311926) grants to CSIR-NCL are gratefully acknowledged. The authors thank Reema Deshmukh, Sneha Petkar, and Nidhi Purohit for their help during preparation of this chapter.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tejas P. Chirmade
    • 1
  • Smrati Sanghi
    • 1
  • Ashwini V. Rajwade
    • 1
  • Vidya S. Gupta
    • 1
  • Narendra Y. Kadoo
    • 1
  1. 1.CSIR-National Chemical LaboratoryBiochemical Sciences DivisionPuneIndia

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