Advertisement

Nutrition, Life, Disease, and Death

  • Mahabaleshwar V. Hegde
  • Anand Arvind Zanwar
  • Sharad P. Adekar
Chapter

Abstract

Supplementation of all essential nutrients in daily diet is must, and omega-3 is the most crucial nutrient today. Anti-nutrients, pollutants should be avoided. Good nutrition helps to renew our body with healthy cells. Seemingly, opposite acting metabolism in both plants and animal life-forms works for creating reducing atmosphere, by deriving NADH and NADPH, reduced molecules, and by processing the food within plant cell and animal cell. Life is a process of defeating entropy, to keep the oxidative stress in check. Vegetarianism is healthier, naturally richer in antioxidants, the reduced molecules. Unlike plant forms, we are crippled in evolution and we need 40 odd essential nutrients to keep our body in a healthy state. Adequate supply of all the essential nutrients, at all times, is pivotal to keep all our faculties fit and fine till last. Although homeostasis keeps metabolites within normal limits, occasional drift by a process called allostasis may also be necessary by a way of readjustment. Redox seems to be playing a very vital role in every cell’s decision, to either remain in a healthy state of life, disease state or die or become immortal and assume a cancerous state.

Keywords

Disease Free radical Nutrition Oxidative stress Redox 

References

  1. 1.
    Das SK. Harmful health effects of cigarette smoking. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;253:159–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Enomoto M, Tierney WJ, Nozaki K. Risk of human health by particulate matter as a source of air pollution-comparison with tobacco smoking. J Toxicol Sci. 2008;33:251–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Romilly EH, Deanna MM. Modulation of metabolic detoxification pathways using foods and food-derived components: a scientific review with clinical application. J Nutr Metab. 2015;2015:23 Article ID 760689.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rao AN, Kavitha J, Koch M, Kumar VS. Inborn errors of metabolism: review and data from tertiary care center. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2009;24(3):215–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Van Karnebeek CD, Stockler S. Treatable inborn errors of metabolism causing intellectual disability: a systematic literature review. Mol Genet Metab. 2012;105(3):368–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pedro CB, Maelan FV, James HO. The western diet and lifestyle and diseases of civilization. Res Rep Clin Cardiol. 2011;2:15–35.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Simopoulos AP. The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother. 2002;56(8):365–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hegde MV, Patil S, Bhalerao S. A philosophy for integration of ayurveda with modern medicine: a biochemist’s perspective. Curr Sci. 2008;95:721–2.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    de Christian D. The beginnings of life on earth. American Scientist. Sept–Oct 1995. http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/pub/the-beginnings-of-life-on-earth/1.
  10. 10.
    Urey HC. On the early chemical history of the earth and the origin of life. Proc Nat Acad Sci. 1952;38:351–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stanley ML, Schopf JW, Lazcano A, Parine O. Origin of life sixty years later. J Mol Evol. 1997;44(4):351–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miller SL, Urey HC, Oró J. Origin of organic compounds on the primitive earth and in meteorites. Mol Evol. 1976;3:59–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Oberbeck VR, Marshall J, Shen T. Prebiotic chemistry in clouds. J Mol Evol. 1991;32:296–303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pace NR, Marsh TL. RNA catalysis and the origin of life. Orig Life Evol Biosph. 1985;16:97–116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (IHGSC). Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome. Nature. 2004;431:931–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Iakes E, David J, Jose MR, Adam F, Mark D, Jennifer H, Jesus V, Alfonso V, Michael L. Tress multiple evidence strands suggest that there may be as few as 19 000 human protein-coding genes. Hum. Mol. Genet. 2014;15;23(22):5866–78.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lieven S, Stephane R, Klaas V, Pierre R, Yves VP. How many genes are there in plants and why are they there? Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2007;10:199–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hegde MV. Food for thought: think of food-A revelation from the human genome project. Pharma Bio World. 2004:106–7.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brauner R, Johannes C, Ploessl F, Bracher F, Lorenz R. Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption by inhibition of 27-hydroxycholesterol generation, liver X receptor α activation, and expression of the basolateral sterol exporter ATP-binding cassette A1 in Caco-2 enterocytes. J Nutr. 2012;142:981–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Okuda K. Discovery of vitamin B12 in the liver and its absorption factor in the stomach: a historical review. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 1999;14:301–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moalem S. Survival of the Sickest, a medical maverick discovers why we need disease. New York: Harper Collins publishers India; 2007.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bruce A. Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage PNAS. Proc Nat Acad Sci. 2006;103:17589–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    McCann JC, Ames BN, Bruce NA. Vitamin K, an example of triage theory: is micronutrient inadequacy linked to diseases of aging? Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(4):889–907.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Li Duo. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and non-communicable diseases: meta-analysis based systemic review. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2015;24:10–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harris WS, Von Schacky C. The omega-3 index: a new risk factor for death from coronary heart disease? Prev Med. 2004;39:212–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schwingshackl L, Hoffmann G. Monounsaturated fatty acids, olive oil and health status: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Lipids Health Dis. 2014;13:154.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010;4:118–26.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Petersen OH, Spät A, Verkhratsky A. Introduction: reactive oxygen species in health and disease. Phil Soc R Soc B. 2005;360:2197–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Amira AM. Oxidative stress and disease an updated review. Res J Immunol. 2010;3:129–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tiwari AK. Imbalance in antioxidant defense and human diseases. Curr Sci. 2001;81:1179–87.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pham-Huy LA, He H, Pham-Huy C. Free radicals, antioxidants, in disease and health. Int J Biomed Sci. 2008;4:82–96.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Barth DS, Macleod KF. Autophagy: cellular and molecular mechanism. J Pathol. 2010;22:3–12.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee J, Giodano S, Zhang J. Autophagy, mitochondria oxidative stress: cross-talk and redox signaling. Biochem J. 2012;441:523–40.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McEwen BS, Wingfield JC. What is in a name? Integrating homeostasis, allostasis and stress. Horn Behav. 2010;57:105–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McEwen BS. Stress adaptation and disease: allostasis and allostatic load. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1998;840:33–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Trachootham D, Weiqin L, Huang P. Redox regulation of cell survival. Antipxid Redox Sig. 2008;10:1343–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Cong YS, Wright WE, Shay JW. Human telomerase and its regulation. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:407–25.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Aviv A. Leukocyte telomere length: the telomere tale continues. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(6):1721–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Zhang J, Rane G, Dai X, Shanmugam MK, Arfuso F, Samy RP, Lai MK, Kappei D, Kumar AP, Sethi G. Ageing and the telomere connection: An intimate relationship with inflammation. Age Res Rev. 2016;25:55–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Kark JD, Goldberger N, Kimura M, Sinnreich R, Aviv A. Energy intake and leukocyte telomere length in young adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95:479–87.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kang JX. Differential effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on telomere length. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1276–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chou JP, Effros RB. T cell replicative senescence in human aging. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19:1680–98.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Epel ES, Belury MA, Andridge R, Lin J, Glaser R, Malarkey WB, Hwang BS, Blackburn E. Omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, and leukocyte telomere length: a randomized controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 2013;28:16–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lipton BH. Biology of belief. India: Hay House of New Delhi; 2014.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Macphail EM, Bolhuis JJ. The evolution of intelligence: adaptive specializations versus general process. Biol Rev. 2001;76:341–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Roth G, Dicke U. Evolution of the brain and intelligence in primates. Prog Brain Res. 2012;195:413–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Cherniak C. The bounded brain: toward quantitative neuroanatomy. J Cogn Neurosci. 1990;2:58–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hofman MA. Design principles of the human brain: an evolutionary perspective. Prog Brain Res. 2012;195:373–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gharami K, Das M, Das S. Essential role of docosahexaenoic acid towards development of a smarter brain. Neurochem Int. 2015;89:51–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahabaleshwar V. Hegde
    • 1
  • Anand Arvind Zanwar
    • 1
  • Sharad P. Adekar
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Innovation in Nutrition Health Disease, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Medical College CampusBharati Vidyapeeth Deemed UniversityDhankawadi, PuneIndia
  2. 2.Western IRBPuyallupUSA

Personalised recommendations