A Pregnant Woman Who Could Not Stop Drinking: Management of Alcohol Abuse in Pregnancy
Alcohol abuse during pregnancy has been found to be harmful for pregnancy outcome and the health of the unborn child . In addition to this, alcoholism in a pregnant mother also harms her social environment, her transition to motherhood, and her relationships with her partner, relatives, friends, and also healthcare providers [1, 2].
- 3.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Alcohol use among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age – United States, 1991–2005. 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5819a4.htm.
- 4.National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAA). Drinking levels defined. http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/moderate-binge-drinking.
- 5.Institute of Alcohol Studies. Deutsche Hauptstelle für Suchtfragen e.V. (DHS). Binge Drinking and Europe. Hamm: DHS; 2008. http://www.dhs.de/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/Pathways_for_Health-Project/binge_drinking_and_europe_report.pdf.
- 6.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Alcohol screening and counseling: an effective but underused health service. CDC Vital Signs. 2014. http://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/alcohol-screening-counseling/index.html.
- 7.Public Health Agency of Canada. What mothers say: the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey. Ottawa: Public Health Agency of Canada; 2009. http://www.violapolomeno.com/survey-eng.pdf.
- 8.The Health and Social Care Information Centre (HSCIC) Dietary supplements, smoking and drinking during pregnancy. 2012. http://www.hscic.gov.uk/catalogue/PUB08694/ifs-uk-2010-chap11-diet-supp-smok-drink.pdf.
- 12.National Health Service (NHS). Binge drinking. 2014. http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/alcohol/Pages/Bingedrinking.aspx.
- 14.Grønkjær M, Curtis T, De Crespigny C, Delmar C. Acceptance and expectance: cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark. Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2011;6:8461. DOI: 10.3402/qhw.v6i4.8461.
- 15.World Health Organization (WHO). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorder: diagnostic criteria for research. 1993. http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/GRNBOOK.pdf.
- 16.American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5E (DSM-5). 2014. http://www.dsm5.org/Pages/Default.aspx.
- 17.West JR. Alcohol and brain development. In: West JR, editor. Prenatal alcohol exposure and neuronal damage. New York: Oxford University Press; 1986. p. 120–57.Google Scholar
- 18.Coerdero JF, Floyd RL, Martin ML, Davis M, Hymbaugh K. Tracking the prevalence of FAS. Alcohol Health Res World. 1994;18(1):82–5.Google Scholar
- 19.Streissguth AP, Bonthius DJ. Alcohol and pregnancy and the fetal alcohol syndrome. Wiley Online Library. 2006. eLS.Google Scholar
- 20.The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG). Committee on health care for underserved women. Committee opinion. Substance abuse reporting and pregnancy: the role of the obstetrician-gynecologist. 2011 http://www.acog.org/Resources-And-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Health-Care-for-Underserved-Women/Substance-Abuse-Reporting-and-Pregnancy-The-Role-of-the-Obstetrician-Gynecologist.
- 21.Bearer CF, Stoler JM, Cook JD, Carpenter SJ. Biomarkers of alcohol use in pregnancy. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). 2004/2005. http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh28-1/38-43.pdf.
- 23.International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP). International guidelines on drinking and pregnancy. 2009. http://www.icap.org/table/InternationalDrinkingGuidelines.html.
- 24.Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). http://www.aa.org/.
- 25.ALLGOV. Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. 2015. http://www.allgov.com/departments/department-of-the-treasury/alcohol-and-tobacco-tax-and-trade-bureau?agencyid=7258.