Advertisement

User Centered Design Methods and Their Application in Older Adult Community

  • Joash Sujan Samuel RoyEmail author
  • W. Patrick Neumann
  • Deborah I. Fels
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9734)

Abstract

Older adults have unique perspectives on technology use that may involve having acquired disabilities, be more likely to be novice users and have more life experiences/biases that can influence user testing results. This literature review is aimed at assessing the application of basic User Centered Design (UCD) Instruments with Older Adults. 41 research articles published between 1988 and 2015 were gathered from different databases. Papers were included if the target audience was older adults and were analyzed only if the primary data collection instrument was any of the following: Questionnaire, Focus Groups, Cultural Probe, Diary Study, Think Aloud protocol, Interviews, Paper prototyping. The major findings from the resources reviewed showed that the application of UCD methods in older adults were commonly used to measure illness and understand their daily lives, experiences and living conditions. Only a few instruments such as Cultural Probe, Think Aloud Protocol and Paper Prototyping were used in the development of technology or devices. Many UCD methods may exist, but none appears to be a superior way to gather requirements. All methods have limitations when applied in an older adult context. A new design method approach should be developed to accommodate older adults in technology development process.

Keywords

User Centered Design methods Older adults 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Funding for this work was generously provided by the Age-Well National Centre of Excellence.

References

  1. 1.
    Martin, J., Murphy, E., Crowe, J., Norris, B.: Capturing user requirements in medical device development: the role of ergonomics. Physiol. Meas. Physiol. Meas. 27(8), R49–R62 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Eisma, R., Dickinson, A., Goodman, J., Syme, A., Tiwari, L., Newell, A.: Early user involvement in the development of information technology-related products for older people. Univ. Access Inf. Soc. 3, 131–140 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Etchell, L., Yelding, D.: Inclusive design: products for all consumers. Consum. Policy Rev. 14(6), 1–1 (2004). Accessed 29 Feb 2016Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shah, S., Robinson, I.: User involvement in healthcare technology development and assessment. Int. J. Health Care Qual. Assur. 19(6), 500–515 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Preece, J., Rogers, Y., Sharp, H.: Data gathering. In: Interaction Design: Beyond Human-Computer Interaction, 3rd edn., p. 232. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Årsand, E., Demiris, G.: User-centered methods for designing patient-centric self-help tools. Inform. Health Soc. Care 33(3), 158–169 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Troyer, A., Rich, J.: Psychometric properties of a new metamemory questionnaire for older adults. J. Gerontol. Ser. B Psychol. Sci. Soc. Sci. 57B(1), P19–P27 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hurt, C., Burns, A., Brown, R., Barrowclough, C.: Perceptions of subjective memory complaint in older adults: the illness perception questionnaire – memory (IPQ-M). Int. Psychogeriatr. 22(5), 750–760 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Muntinga, M., Mokkink, L., Knol, D., Nijpels, G., Jansen, A.: Measurement properties of the client-centered care questionnaire (CCCQ): factor structure, reliability and validity of a questionnaire to assess self-reported client-centeredness of home care services in a population of frail, older people. Qual. Life Res. 23, 2063–2072 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hawthorne, G., Davidson, N., Quinn, K., Mccrate, F., Winkler, I., Lucas, R., Molzahn, A.: Issues in conducting cross-cultural research: implementation of an agreed international protocol designed by the WHOQOL group for the conduct of focus groups eliciting the quality of life of older adults. Qual. Life Res. 15, 905–905 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Oudsten, B.L., Lucas-Carrasco, R., Green, A.M., Group, T.W.: Perceptions of persons with Parkinson’s disease, family and professionals on quality of life: an international focus group study. Disabil. Rehabil. 33(25–26), 2492–2492 (2011). Accessed 29 Feb 2016Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Claes, R., Heymans, M.: HR professionals’ views on work motivation and retention of older workers: a focus group study. Career Dev. Int. 13(2), 95–111 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Raynes, N., Coulthard, L., Glenister, C., Temple, B.: Age does not come alone: Identifying and implementing older people’s views of quality in home care services. Qual. Ageing Older Adults 5(1), 24–31 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mehta, K.: The challenges of conducting focus-group research among Asian older adults. Ageing Soc. 31, 408–421 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fausset, C., Mayer, A., Rogers, W., Fisk, A.: Understanding aging in place for older adults: a needs analysis. PsycEXTRA Dataset 53, 521–525 (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pattison, M., Stedmon, A.: Inclusive design and human factors: designing mobile phones for older users. PsychNology 4(3), 267–284 (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boehner, K., Vertesi, J., Sengers, P., Dourish, P.: How HCI interprets the probes. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2007, pp. 1–1. Accessed 25 Feb 2016 (2007)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Caleb-Solly, P., Flind, A., Vargheese, J.: Cameras as cultural probes in requirements gathering — Exploring their potential in supporting the design of assistive technology. In: 2011 24th International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS), pp. 1–6 (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wherton, J., Sugarhood, P., Procter, R., Rouncefield, M., Dewsbury, G., Hinder, S., Greenhalgh, T.: Designing assisted living technologies ‘in the wild’: preliminary experiences with cultural probe methodology. BMC Med. Res. Methodol. 12, 188–188 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brown, M., et al.: Using cultural probes to inform the design of assistive technologies. In: Kurosu, M. (ed.) HCI 2014, Part I. LNCS, vol. 8510, pp. 35–46. Springer, Heidelberg (2014). Dickinson, A., Newell, A., Smith, M., Hill, R.: Introducing the Internet to the over-60s: developing an email system for older novice computer users. Interact. Comput. 17, 621–642 (2005)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Thoring, K., Luippold, C., Mueller, R.M.: Opening the cultural probes box: a critical reflection and analysis of the cultural probes method (n.d.). Accessed 17 Feb 2016Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lallemand, C.: Dear diary: using diaries to study user experience. User Experience Magazine, 1 August 2012Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Musil, C., Ahn, S., Haug, M., Warner, C., Morris, D., Duffy, E.: Health problems and health actions among community-dwelling older adults: results of a health diary study. Appl. Nurs. Res. 11(3), 138–147 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Verbrugge, L.M., Ascione, F.J.: Exploring the iceberg. Med. Care 25(6), 539–569 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Morone, N., Lynch, C., Greco, C., Tindle, H., Weiner, D.: “I felt like a new person.” The effects of mindfulness meditation on older adults with chronic pain: qualitative narrative analysis of diary entries. J. Pain 9(9), 841–848 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Terry, W.: Everyday forgetting: data from a diary study. Psychol. Rep. 62, 299–303 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chung, J., Chaudhuri, S., Le, T., Chi, N., Thompson, H., Demiris, G.: The use of think-aloud to evaluate a navigation structure for a multimedia health and wellness application for older adults and their caregivers. Educ. Gerontol. 41, 916–929 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Luger, T., Houston, T., Suls, J.: Older adult experience of online diagnosis: results from a scenario-based think-aloud protocol. J. Med. Internet Res. 16(1), e16 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Roberts, V., Fels, D.: Methods for inclusion: employing think aloud protocols in software usability studies with individuals who are deaf. Int. J. Hum.-Comput. Stud. 64, 489–501 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fontana, A., Frey, J.H.: Interviewing: the art of science. In: D. (ed.). The Handbook of Qualitative Research, pp. 361–376 (1994). Accessed 29 February 2016Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jones, K.: The unstructured clinical interview. J. Couns. Dev. 88, 220–226 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mccann, T., Clark, E.: Using unstructured interviews with participants who have schizophrenia. Nurse Res. 13(1), 7–18 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Moyle, W.: Unstructured interviews: challenges when participants have a major depressive illness. J. Adv. Nurs. 39(3), 266–273 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang, R., Korotchenko, A., Hurd, L., Mortenson, B., Mihaildis, A.: Power mobility with collision avoidance for older adults: user, caregiver, and prescriber perspectives. Prim. Health Care 50(9), 1289 (2014)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Vijayan, J., Raju, G.: A new approach to requirements elicitation using paper prototype. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Technol. 28, 11–11 (2011)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hawthorn, D.: Interface design and engagement with older people. Behav. Inf. Technol. 26(4), 333–341 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sellen, K., Massimi, M., Lottridge, D., Truong, K., Bittle, S.: The people-prototype problem. In: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2009, pp. 635–638 (2009)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tsolidis, G.: Migration, Diaspora and Identity Cross-National Experiences, p. 161. Springer, Dordrecht (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fisk, A.: Guiding the design process. In: Designing for Older Adults Principles and Creative Human Factors Approaches (2nd edn.), p. 37. Taylor & Francis, London (2004)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cunliffe, A., Gladman, J., Husbands, S., Miller, P., Dewey, M., Hardwood, R.: Sooner and healthier: a randomised controlled trial and interview study of an early discharge rehabilitation service for older people. Age Ageing 33, 246–252 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mojtabai, R.: Clinician-identified depression in community settings: concordance with structured-interview diagnoses. Psychother. Psychosom. 82, 161–169 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Massimi, M., Baecker, R., Wu, M.: Using participatory activities with seniors to critique, build, and evaluate mobile phones. In: Proceedings of the 9th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility - Assets 2007, pp. 155–162 (2007)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mehta, K.K.: The challenges of conducting focus-group research among Asian older adults. Ageing Soc. 31(03), 408–421 (2011). Accessed 16 Feb 2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Leonardi, C., Mennecozzi, C., Not, E., Pianesi, F., Zancanaro, M., Gennai, F., Cristoforetti, A.: “Knocking on elders’ door.” In: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2009 (2009). WebGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stoller, E.P.: Interpretations of symptoms by older people: a health diary study of illness behavior. J. Aging Health 5(1), 58–81 (1993). WebCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stoller, E.P., Forster, L.E., Portugal, S.: Self-care responses to symptoms by older people. Med. Care 31(1), 24–42 (1993). WebCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gill, A.: Current think aloud practices. Thesis,d University of Guelph. PrintGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nordström, M., Dunér, A., Olin, E., Wijk, H.: Places, social relations and activities in the everyday lives of older adults with psychiatric disabilities: an interview study. IPG Int. Psychogeriatr. 21(02), 401 (2009). WebCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Dickinson, A., Newell, A.F., Smith, M.J., Hill, R.L.: Introducing the internet to the over-60s: developing an email system for older novice computer users. Interact. Comput. 17(6), 621–642 (2005). WebCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rice, M., Alm, N.: Designing new interfaces for digital interactive television usable by older adults. Comput. Entertain. (CIE) 6(1), 1 (2008). WebCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Siek, K.A., Khan, D.U., Ross, S.E., Haverhals, L.M., Meyers, J., Cali, S.R.: Designing a personal health application for older adults to manage medications: a comprehensive case study. J. Med. Syst. 35(5), 1099–1121 (2011). WebCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cesar, P., Chorianopoulos, K., Jensen, J.F.: Social television and user interaction. Comput. Entertain. (CIE) 6(1), 1 (2008). WebCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Massimi, M., Baecker, R.M., Wu, M.: Using participatory activities with seniors to critique, build, and evaluate mobile phones. In: Proceedings of the 9th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility - Assets 2007 (2007). WebGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joash Sujan Samuel Roy
    • 1
    Email author
  • W. Patrick Neumann
    • 1
  • Deborah I. Fels
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Ted Rogers School of Information Technology ManagementRyerson UniversityTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations