Advertisement

Bittersweet Success. The Impact of Academic Achievement Among the Spanish Roma After a Decade of Roma Inclusion

  • Bálint Ábel BereményiEmail author
  • Sílvia Carrasco
Chapter
Part of the Springer International Handbooks of Education book series (SIHE)

Abstract

This study (The study has been developed under the framework of an FP7 research project, RESL.Eu – Reducing Early School Leaving in Europe (Project scheme: SSH-2012-1; number: 320223).) aims to contribute to a line of research initiated at the beginning of the twenty-first century that inquired into the conditions that favoured the academic success and school continuity of Spain’s Roma youth (Abajo and Carrasco 2004) and also investigated the sociocultural impact that successful academic trajectories might have on Roma individuals, families and communities. This chapter will comparatively explore the experiences and trajectories of academic success of two sets of Roma youth that have been identified as ‘pre-Decade generation’ and ‘Decade-generation’, in relation to the changing policy contexts to which they have been exposed and in which they have been navigating through formal education: namely, before and in parallel with the development of the ambitious European agenda known as the Decade of Roma Inclusion (2005–2015) and corresponding national and local initiatives undertaken in Spain. Data of the first dataset were collected in 2002/2003, while those of the second set in 2015. For this analysis we have selected a total of 16 interviews. Data analysis will call for a wider framework including recent critical revisits of Ogbu’s cultural ecological theory in the context of urban schooling, but developing a success perspective that draws from literature on different forms of social and cultural capital, minority youth and education. We will firstly inquire into how social capital is operating in the family and ethnic community, in peer relations and with regards to institutional agents, including the case of ethnically targeted interventions. Secondly, we aim to identify what sociocultural changes are triggered by school success.

Keywords

Spanish Roma Academic success Social capital Sociocultural changes Impact of success Institutional agents 

References

  1. Abajo, J. E., & Carrasco, S. (2004). Experiencias y trayectorias de éxito escolar de gitanas y gitanos en España. Encrucijadas sobre educación, género y cambio cultural [Experiences and trajectories of school success among the Roma/Gitanos/ in Spain. The crossroads between education, gender and cultural change]. Madrid: CIDE/Instituto de la Mujer.Google Scholar
  2. Behtoui, A. & Neergaard, A., (2015). Social capital and the educational achievement of young people in Sweden. British Journal of Sociology of Education, (Apr 2015), pp.1–23.Google Scholar
  3. Bereményi, B. Á., & Carrasco, S. (2015). Interrupted aspirations: research and policy on gitano education in a time of recession, in Spain. Intercultural Education, 26(1), 1–12. (online version).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bereményi, B. Á., & Mirga, A. (2012). Lost in action. Evaluating the 6 years of the comprehensive plan for the gitano population in Catalonia. Barcelona: FAGiC-EMIGRA.Google Scholar
  5. Bernard, H. R. (2011). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (4th ed.). Lanham: Rowman Altamira.Google Scholar
  6. Biernacki, P., & Waldorf, D. (1981). Snowball sampling: Problems and techniques of chain referral sampling. Sociological Methods & Research, 10(2), 141–163.Google Scholar
  7. Borman, G. D., & Rachuba, L. T. (2001). Academic success among poor and minority students: An analysis of competing models of school effects (Report No. 52). Baltimore: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk (CRESPAR).Google Scholar
  8. Brüggemann, C. (2014). Romani culture and academic success: Arguments against the belief in a contradiction. Intercultural Education, 25(6), 439–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carrasco, S., (2004). Inmigración y educación: oportunidades y tensiones para un modelo. Educación y sociedad, (15), pp.1–15. [Immigration and education: opportunities and tensions for introducing a model].Google Scholar
  10. Carrasco, S. & Bereményi, B.Á., (2013). Gitans et école en Espagne. Entre progrès et régressions. Revue Diversité, 174(4e trimestre). [Roma and school in Spain. Between progress and regress].Google Scholar
  11. Carter, P. L. (2003). “Black” cultural capital, status positioning, and schooling conflicts for low-income African American youth. Social Problems, 50(1), 136–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carter, P. L. (2005). Keepin’it real: School success beyond black and white. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Carter, P. L. (2006). Straddling boundaries: Identity, culture, and school. Sociology of Education, 79, 304–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ceglédi, T. (2012). Reziliens életutak, avagy A hátrányok ellenére sikeresen kibontakozó iskolai karrier. [Resilient life courses, or: successful school trajectories despite the disadvantages]. Szociológiai Szemle, 22(2), 85–110.Google Scholar
  15. Cochran, M., et al. (1990). Extending families: The social networks of parents and their children. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94(Supplement: Organizations and institutions: Sociological and economic approaches to the analysis of social structure), S95–S120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Collins, P. H. (1999). Moving beyond gender: Intersectionality and scientific knowledge. In M. M. Ferree, J. Lorber, & B. B. Hess (Eds.), Revisioning gender (pp. 261–284). Walnut Creek: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  18. Conchas, G. Q. (2006). The color of success: Race and high-achieving urban youth. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  19. Côté, J. E. (1996). Sociological perspectives on identity formation: The culture-identity link and identity capital. Journal of Adolescence, 19(5), 417–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Council of Europe. (2010). Document prepared by the support team of the Special Representative of the Secretary General of the Council of Europe for Roma Issues. Updated on 2 July 2012. Available: https://rm.coe.int/CoERMPublicCommonSearchServices/DisplayDCTMContent?documentId=0900001680088ea9.
  21. Crul, M., et al. (2012). School careers of second-generation youth in Europe: Which education systems provide the best chances for success? In M. Crul, J. Schneider, & F. Lelie (Eds.), The european second generation compared. Does the integration context matter? (pp. 101–164). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Davidson, A. L. (1996). Making and molding identity in schools: Student narratives on race, gender, and academic engagement. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  23. Durst, J., Fejős, A., & Nyírő, Z. (2014). “I always felt the odd one out”: Work-life balance among graduate Romani women in Hungary. Acta Ethnographica Hungarica, 59(1), 165–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fehér, G., (2015). Felsőoktatásban tanuló roma hallgatók vizsgálata: mobilitás és identitás. Szakdolgozat. Zsigmond Király Főiskola, Kommunkáció és Művelődéstudományi Intézet. [An enquiry into Roma students studying in tertiary education: mobility and identity. BA Dissertation. Zsigmond Király College, Institute of Communication and Education Sciences].Google Scholar
  25. Feischmidt, M. (2008). A boldogulók identitásküzdelmei. [Succeeders’ identity struggles]. Beszélő, 13(11), 1–18.Google Scholar
  26. Foley, D. E. (2004). Ogbu’s theory of academic disengagement: Its evolution and its critics. Intercultural Education, 15(4), 385–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fordham, S. (1996). Blacked out: Dilemmas of race, identity, and success at capital high. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  28. Fordham, S., & Ogbu, J. U. (1986). Black students’ school success: Coping with the “burden of ‘acting white.’”. The Urban Review, 18(3), 176–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. FRA & UNDP, (2012). The situation of Roma in 11 EU Member States. Survey results at a glance.Google Scholar
  30. FSG & CEET. (2013). El alumnado gitano en secundaria: un estudio comparado, [Roma/Gitano students in secondary school: a comparative study]. Madrid: Fundación Secretariado Gitano, (CNIIE) Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte.Google Scholar
  31. Gamella, J. F. (2011). Historias de éxito. Modelos para reducir el abandono escolar de la adolescencia gitana. [Success stories. Models for the reduction of school drop-out among Roma/Gitano teenagers]. Madrid: Ministerio de Educación.Google Scholar
  32. Garbarino, J., et al. (1992). Children in danger: Coping with the consequences of community violence. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  33. Generalitat de Catalunya. (2009). Promoció Escolar. Objectius i actuacions dels Promotors i Promotores Escolars. [School Promotion. Objectives and actions of School Promoters]. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament d’Educació. Direcció General d’Innovació.Google Scholar
  34. Gibson, M. A. (1988). Accommodation without assimilation: Punjabi Sikh immigrants in an American high school and community. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Gibson, M. A., & Ogbu, J. U. (Eds.). (1991). Minority status and schooling: A comparative study of immigrant and involuntary minorities. New York: Garland Publishing.Google Scholar
  36. Gibson, M. A., Gándara, P., & Peterson Koyama, J. (2004). School connections. U.S. Mexican youth, peers, and school achievement. New York/London: Teachers College, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  37. Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Horvat, E. M., & Lewis, K. S. (2003). Reassessing the “burden of ‘acting White’”: The importance of peer groups in managing academic success. Sociology of Education, 76(4), 265–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hurst, A. L. (2007). Telling tales of oppression and dysfunction: Narratives of class identity reformation. Qualitative Sociology Review, III(2), 41–42.Google Scholar
  40. Kende, A. (2005a). “Az identitásom az egy normális identitás. Nem is egy eltúlzott, de nem is gagyi.” Vizsgálat roma egyetemisták életútjáról. [“My identity is a normal identity. Not great, but not too bad.” An Inquiry into Roma university students’ life courses]. Café Bábel, 2(49–50), 81–95.Google Scholar
  41. Kende, A. (2005b). Értelmiségiként leszek roma és romaként leszek értelmiségi. Vizsgálat roma egyetemisták életútjáról [As an intellectual I’ll become Roma, and as a Roma I’ll become an intellectual. Inquiry into Roma university students’ life courses]. In J. Szalai & M. Neményi (Eds.), Kisebbségek kisebbsége: a magyarországi cigányok emberi és politikai jogai [A minority of minorities: Human and political rights of the Roma in Hungary.] (pp. 376–408). Budapest: Új Mandátum Kiadó.Google Scholar
  42. Kende, A. (2007). Success stories? Roma university students overcoming social exclusion in Hungary. In H. Colley et al. (Eds.), Social inclusion for young people: Breaking down the barriers (pp. 133–144). Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publications.Google Scholar
  43. Kende, A., & Neményi, M. (2006). Selection in education: The case of Roma children in Hungary. Equal Opportunities International, 25(7), 506–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kóczé, A., & Rövid, M. (2012). Pro-Roma global civil society: Acting for, with or instead of Roma? In M. Kaldor, H. L. Moore, & S. Selchow (Eds.), Global civil society 2012. Ten years of critical reflection (pp. 110–122). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kovats, M., (2002). The European Roma question. The Royal Institute of International Affairs Briefing Paper., New Series(No.31).Google Scholar
  46. Kriston, L. & Varga, E., (2011). A felsőoktatásban tanuló roma hallgatók motivációi és jövőtervei. Campus-lét Project, pp.1–10. [Motivations and future plans of Roma students in tertiary education. ‘Life on Campus’ Project.].Google Scholar
  47. Laparra, M. (2011). Diagnóstico social de la comunidad gitana en España. Un análisis contrastado de la Encuesta del CIS a Hogares de Población Gitana 2007 [Social Diagnosis of the Roma/Gitano community in Spain. A contrasting analysis of the CIS Survey on Households of the Roma Population 2007]. Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad, Política Social e Igualdad.Google Scholar
  48. Laparra, M., et al. (2013). Updated civil society monitoring report on the implementation of the National Roma integration strategy and decade action plan in 2012 and 2013 in Spain. Budapest: Decade of Roma Inclusion Secretariat Foundation.Google Scholar
  49. Máté, D. (2015). Reziliens romák identitáskonstrukciói [Identity construction of the resilient Roma]. Transylvanian Society, 1, 43–55.Google Scholar
  50. Mendi, R., (1999). Felsőoktatásban tanuló roma fiatalok pályaszocializációs és személyiségvizsgálata. Bölcsészkari szakdolgozat. Budapest: Eötvös Lóránd Tudományegyetem. [Inquiry into the carreer-socialisation and personalities of young Roma university students. BA dissertation. Budapest: ELTE University].Google Scholar
  51. Messing, V. (2014). Methodological puzzles of surveying “Roma”/‘Gypsy’ population. Ethnicities, 14(6), 811–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ogbu, J. U., & Simons, H. D. (1998). Voluntary and involuntary minorities: A cultural-ecological theory of school performance with some implications for education. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29(2), 155–188. Available at: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1525/aeq.1998.29.2.155
  53. Óhidy, A. (2013). From multiple deprivation to success – Educational careers of ten Roma and Gypsy women. Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 3, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pàmies, J. et al., (2013). Trajectòries d’èxit i continuïtat acadèmica entre joves marroquins a Catalunya. Temps d’Educació, (44), pp.191–207. [Successful and continuing academic trajectories of young Moroccans in Catalonia].Google Scholar
  55. San Román, T. (1994). La diferència inquietant: velles i noves estratègies culturals dels gitanos [Troubling difference: old and new cultural strategies of the Roma/Gitanos]. Alta Fulla: Fundació Serveis de Cultura Popular.Google Scholar
  56. Shah, B., Dwyer, C., & Modood, T. (2010). Explaining educational achievement and career aspirations among young British Pakistanis: Mobilizing “Ethnic Capital”? Sociology, 44(6), 1109–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (1997). A social capital framework for understanding the socialization of racial minority children and youths. Harvard Educational Review, 67(1), 1–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2001). Manufacturing hope and despair: The school and kin support networks of U.S.-Mexican youth. New York/London: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  59. Stanton-Salazar, R. D. (2004). Social capital among working-class minority students. In M. A. Gibson, P. Gándara, & J. Peterson Koyama (Eds.), School connections. U.S. Mexican youth, peers, and school achievement. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.Google Scholar
  60. Székelyi, M., et al. (2005). A siker fénytörései [Refractions of success]. Budapest: Sík kiadó.Google Scholar
  61. Tremlett, A. & McGarry, A., (2013). Challenges facing researchers on Roma minorities in contemporary Europe : Notes towards a research program. Google Scholar
  62. Valenzuela, A., 1998. Subtractive schooling: U.S.- Mexican youth and the politics of caring. In Reflexiones 1998: New directions in Mexican American studies. Center for Mexican American Studies, University of Texas.Google Scholar
  63. Yosso, T. J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race theory discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8(1), 69–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Social and Cultural AnthropologyUniversitat Autònoma de BarcelonaCerdanyola del VallèsSpain

Personalised recommendations