DNA Methods to Identify Missing Persons
Since its discovery in 1985 by Alec Jeffreys, forensic DNA profiling has emerged as an immensely powerful technology. In this chapter, the development of genetic approaches to forensic human identification will be discussed in a variety of contexts, including the analysis of skeletal remains and other trace evidence. The use of autosomal, X and Y chromosome genetic loci and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA in relationship analysis will be briefly reviewed. More recent advances in the application of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) to human identification, particularly in the development of ancestry informative markers (AIMS) and externally visible characteristics (EVCs), will also be introduced, with related socio-ethical issues. A range of case studies are used to illustrate application of these technologies. Forensic genetics has a range of roles in missing person cases, including homicides and human rights related investigations. It is also important in the investigation of living missing persons, including trafficked children and persons displaced due to conflict and migration.
KeywordsMissing persons Human identification DNA profiling Kinship analysis STR ChrX ChrY mtDNA
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