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Stem Cells in Bone and Articular Cartilage Tissue Regeneration

  • Christopher R. Fellows
  • Kalamegam Gauthaman
  • Peter N. Pushparaj
  • Mohammed Abbas
  • Csaba Matta
  • Rebecca Lewis
  • Constanze Buhrmann
  • Mehdi Shakibaei
  • Ali MobasheriEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Stem Cells in Clinical Applications book series (SCCA)

Abstract

Multiple factors including trauma, infection, ageing, obesity and tumours result in bone and cartilage defects. The regeneration and functional restoration of bone and cartilage remains a significant clinical challenge. ‘Autologous grafts’ continue to remain the ‘gold standard’ in both bone and cartilage regeneration but stem cell-based therapies offer great promise in both these areas. Despite the plethora of stem cells that exist within the human body, the challenge remains in identifying the most beneficial cell type, assessing their availability, expansion under cGMP culture conditions, differentiation potential and functional restoration capacity. Embryonic stem cells; mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow, synovial fluid, adipose tissue and umbilical cord; and primary articular chondrocytes are some of the candidate cell types that are extensively studied in the context of bone (and cartilage) regeneration. The limited regeneration potential of cartilage adds further complexity to cartilage tissue engineering compared to the bone. However, major bone reconstruction as in the case of large bone defects due to tumour resection, fractures, and skeletal deformities is equally challenging. Incorporation of novel biomaterials, understanding the optimal cell-scaffold interactions, the addition of growth factors and provision of molecular cues are all essential in achieving effective tissue regeneration. Intensive effects in tissue regeneration can actually predispose to tissue hypertrophy, which also limits functional capacity. The current state of-the-art in both bone and cartilage regeneration is reviewed in this chapter, which highlights the importance of combined approaches involving stem/progenitor cells, biomolecules and/or biomaterials for therapies as well as rehabilitation and improvement in quality of life.

Keywords

Stem Cells Cartilage Bone Tissue Engineering Osteoarthritis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

AM is the coordinator of the D-BOARD Consortium funded by the European Commission Framework Seventh programme (EU FP7; HEALTH.2012.2.4.5-2, project number 305815, Novel Diagnostics and Biomarkers for Early Identification of Chronic Inflammatory Joint Diseases). AM is a member of the Applied Public-Private Research enabling OsteoArthritis Clinical Headway (APPROACH) consortium, a 5-year project funded by the European Commission Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI). APPROACH is a public–private partnership directed towards osteoarthritis biomarker development through the establishment of a heavily phenotyped and comprehensively analysed longitudinal cohort. The research leading to these results has received partial support from the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) Joint Undertaking under grant agreement no. 115770, resources of which are composed of financial contribution from the European Union’s Seventh Framework programme (FP7/2007–2013) and EFPIA companies’ in-kind contribution. CM is supported by the European Union through a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship for career development (project number 625746; acronym: CHONDRION; FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IEF). A.M. has received funding from the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University (grant no. 1–141/1434 HiCi). KG acknowledges the financial support provided by the ‘Sheikh Salem Bin Mahfouz Scientific Chair for Treatment of Osteoarthritis by Stem Cells’ and the stem cell laboratory facility at CEGMR and King Abdulaziz University Hospital. The funders had no role in decision to publish or the preparation of this chapter.

Competing Interests and Disclosures

The authors wrote this chapter within the scope of their academic and affiliated research positions. The authors declare no competing interests. The authors do not have any commercial relationships that could be construed as biased or inappropriate.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher R. Fellows
    • 1
  • Kalamegam Gauthaman
    • 2
    • 3
  • Peter N. Pushparaj
    • 2
  • Mohammed Abbas
    • 3
  • Csaba Matta
    • 1
    • 4
  • Rebecca Lewis
    • 1
  • Constanze Buhrmann
    • 5
  • Mehdi Shakibaei
    • 5
  • Ali Mobasheri
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Preclinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical SciencesUniversity of SurreyGuildfordUK
  2. 2.Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR)King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Sheikh Salem Bin Mahfouz Scientific Chair for Treatment of Osteoarthritis by Stem CellsKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of DebrecenDebrecenHungary
  5. 5.Institute of AnatomyLudwig-Maximilians-University MunichMunichGermany
  6. 6.Arthritis Research UK Centre for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis, Arthritis Research UK Pain Centre, Medical Research Council and Arthritis Research UK Centre for Musculoskeletal Ageing ResearchQueen’s Medical CentreNottinghamUK

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