Skip to main content

Autonomous Service Robotics

  • 142 Accesses

Part of the Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering book series (ISCA,volume 82)


Autonomous robotics emerged as a research and development field nearly forty years ago, but only fifteen years ago, after the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency of the United States Department of Defense) challenge, autonomous mobile systems started to be considered as a solution to the transportation and service problem. This chapter is focused on autonomous (i.e., robotic) vehicles used as human transportation service from two points of view: on one hand, the autonomous vehicle that leads to intelligent transportation systems; on the other hand, autonomous vehicles used for rehabilitation or for enhancing mobility capabilities of their users. Both perspectives of autonomous systems are linked by the use of rapid prototyping techniques, aimed at converting a previously commercial product into a robotic system with a specific transportation usage. This chapter shows, in particular, two cases: two electric commercial vehicles (one golf cart and one car) converted into an autonomous robot for transporting people in cities or for executing specific tasks in sites; and an assistive vehicle (an electric scooter) used by people with reduced mobility. The design of the different components needed to achieve such automation is shown in detail herein.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-40003-7_7
  • Chapter length: 23 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
USD   99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-40003-7
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Hardcover Book
USD   129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16


  1. Carey N, Steitz C (2021) EU proposes effective ban for new fossil-fuel cars from 2035. Accessed 14 July 2021.

  2. Arango I, Lopez C, Ceren A (2021) Improving the autonomy of a mid-drive motor electric bicycle based on system efficiency maps and its performance. World Electric Veh J 12(2):59

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Ashfaq R, Saleem M (2019) Use of global navigation satellite system (gnss) software defined receiver (sdr) for determining the 3d real time position variation in dense urban areas by averaging method. In: 2019 sixth international conference on aerospace science and engineering (ICASE), IEEE, pp 1–9

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bastos-Filho TF, Cheein FA, Müller SMT, Celeste WC, de la Cruz C, Cavalieri DC, Sarcinelli-Filho M, Amaral PFS, Perez E, Soria CM et al (2013) Towards a new modality-independent interface for a robotic wheelchair. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 22(3):567–584

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Betz S (2021) The top 21 self-driving car companies paving the way for an autonomous future. Accessed 22nd July 2021.

  6. Buechel M, Frtunikj J, Becker K, Sommer S, Buckl C, Armbruster M, Marek A, Zirkler A, Klein C, Knoll A (2015) An automated electric vehicle prototype showing new trends in automotive architectures. In: 2015 IEEE 18th international conference on intelligent transportation systems, IEEE, pp 1274–1279

    Google Scholar 

  7. De la Cruz C, Bastos TF, Cheein FAA, Carelli R (2010) Slam-based robotic wheelchair navigation system designed for confined spaces. In: 2010 IEEE international symposium on industrial electronics, IEEE, pp 2331–2336

    Google Scholar 

  8. Eppenberger N, Richter MA (2021) The opportunity of shared autonomous vehicles to improve spatial equity in accessibility and socio-economic developments in european urban areas. Eur Trans Res Rev 13(1):1–21

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. European Commission (2021) Electric vehicle charging - standards for recharging points for e-buses. Accessed 22nd July 2021.

  10. González E, Cheein FAA (2018) Preliminary results on reducing the workload of assistive vehicle users: a collaborative driving approach. Int J Soc Robot 10(5):555–568

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  11. Guevara L, Auat Cheein F (2020) The role of 5g technologies: challenges in smart cities and intelligent transportation systems. Sustainability 12(16):6469

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. EA (2021) Global EV Outlook 2021, IEA, Paris. Accessed 22nd July 2021.

  13. Irie K, Tomono M (2012) Localization and road boundary recognition in urban environments using digital street maps. In: 2012 IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, IEEE, pp 4493–4499

    Google Scholar 

  14. Isorna Llerena F, López González E, Caparrós Mancera J, Segura Manzano F, Andújar J (2021) Hydrogen vs. battery-based propulsion systems in unipersonal vehicles–developing solutions to improve the sustainability of urban mobility. Sustainability 13(10):5721

    Google Scholar 

  15. Jeon CW, Kim HJ, Yun C, Han X, Kim JH (2021) Design and validation testing of a complete paddy field-coverage path planner for a fully autonomous tillage tractor. Biosyst Eng 208:79–97

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  16. Jeong S, Jang YJ, Kum D, Lee MS (2018) Charging automation for electric vehicles: is a smaller battery good for the wireless charging electric vehicles? IEEE Trans Autom Sci Eng 16(1):486–497

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  17. Malmgren I (2016) Quantifying the societal benefits of electric vehicles. World Electric Vehicle J 8(4):996–1007

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  18. Muramatsu S, Tomizawa T, Kudoh S, Suehiro T (2017) Mobile robot navigation utilizing the web based aerial images without prior teaching run. J Robot Mechatron 29(4):697–705

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  19. Prado AJ, Michałek MM, Cheein FA (2018) Machine-learning based approaches for self-tuning trajectory tracking controllers under terrain changes in repetitive tasks. Eng Appl Artifi Intell 67:63–80

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  20. Raboaca MS, Bizon N, Grosu OV (2021) Optimal energy management strategies for the electric vehicles compiling bibliometric maps. Int J Energy Res 45(7):10129–10172

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  21. Rfidtires (2021) How many cars are there in the world today? Accessed 22nd July 2021.

  22. Romero Schmidt J, Eguren J, Auat Cheein F (2019) Profiling the instantaneous power consumption of electric machinery in agricultural environments: an algebraic approach. Sustainability 11(7):2146

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  23. Schmidt JR, Cheein FA (2019) Assessment of power consumption of electric machinery in agricultural tasks for enhancing the route planning problem. Comput Electron Agric 163:104868

    Google Scholar 

  24. Schmidt JR, Cheein FA (2019) Prognosis of the energy and instantaneous power consumption in electric vehicles enhanced by visual terrain classification. Comput & Electr Eng 78:120–131

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  25. Shojaei K (2021) Intelligent coordinated control of an autonomous tractor-trailer and a combine harvester. Eur J Control 59:82–98

    MathSciNet  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  26. Xu Z, Qu D, Hong J, Song X (2021) Research on decision-making method for autonomous driving behavior of connected and automated vehicle. Complex Syst Complexity Sci 18(3):88–94

    Google Scholar 

  27. Yadav R, Kishor G, Kashyap K, et al (2020) Comparative analysis of route planning algorithms on road networks. In: 2020 5th international conference on communication and electronics systems (ICCES), IEEE, pp 401–406

    Google Scholar 

  28. Zangina U, Buyamin S, Aman MN, Abidin MSZ, Mahmud MSA (2021) Autonomous mobility of a fleet of vehicles for precision pesticide application. Comput Electron Agric 186:106217

    Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was partially supported by Basal Project FB0008, CONICYT-PCHA/Doctorado Nacional/2018-21181420.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fernando Auat .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Viscaíno, M., Romero, J., Auat, F. (2022). Autonomous Service Robotics. In: Auat, F., Prieto, P., Fantoni, G. (eds) Rapid Roboting. Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering, vol 82. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-40001-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-40003-7

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)