Pre and Post Menarche—Girls’ Bodies Parameters Comparison

Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 471)


The article presents changes in body composition in adolescent girls. A review of available measurement techniques is preceded by an analysis of the physiology of puberty, whose social significance is very high, especially in the present stage of development of civilization. Measurement techniques are classified depending on the used equipment, with attention to the bioelectrical impedance. Girls aged 9.3 to 18.6 y. from schools in Cieszyn were analysed. On the basis of their status of maturation they were divided into two groups: before menarche and after menarche. The comparison of body composition of pre– and post–menarcheal girls had shown the change in all body components. However, increased weight associated with the development and maturation is mainly the result of the growth of fatness, which was reflected in both the anthropometric parameters (waist, hip circumferences, skinfolds) and BIA analysis.


Girls Bioelectric impedance analysis BIA Body parameters Body composition Maturation Menarche 


  1. 1.
    Blair, S.N., Ludwig, D.A., Goodyear, N.N.: A canonical analysis of central and peripheral subcutaneous fat distribution and coronary heart disease risk factors in men and women aged 18–65 years. Hum. Biol. 60, 111–122 (1988)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brown, M.B., Forsythe, A.B.: Robust tests for equality of variances. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 69, 364–367 (1974)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cameron, N., Demerath, E.W.: Critical periods in human growth and their relationship to diseases of aging. Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 45, 159–184 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Corder, G.W.: Foreman, D.I.: Nonparametric Statistics: A Step-by-Step Approach. Wiley (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Faria, E.R., De Faria, F.R., Goncalves, V.S., Franceschini, S.C., Peluzio, M.C., Sant’Ana, L.F., Priore, S.E.: Prediction of body fat in adolescents: comparison of two electric bioimpedance devices with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Nutricion Hospitalaria 30, 1270–1278 (2014)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    De Palo, T., Messina, G., Edefonti, A., Perfumo, F., Pisanello, L., Peruzzi, L., Di Iorio, B., Mignozzi, M., Vienna, A., Conti, G., Penza, R., Piccoli, A.: Normal values of the bioelectrical impedance vector in childhood and puberty. Nutrition 16, 417–424 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ducimetiere, P., Richard, J., Cambien, F., Avous, P., Jacqueson, A.: Relationship between adiposity measurements and the incidence of coronary heart disease in middle aged men population—the Paris Prospective Study I. Am. J. Nutr. 4, 1–8 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dżygadło, B., Łepecka-Klusek, C., Pilewski, B.: Wykorzystanie analizy impedancji bioelektrycznej w profilaktyce i leczeniu nadwagi i otyłości (Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis in the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity). Problemy Higieny i Epidemiologii 93, 274–280 (2012). (in Polish)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Frisch, R.E., McArthur, J.: Menstrual cycles: fatness as a determinant of minimum weight for height necessary for their maintenance or onset. Science 185, 949–951 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Garn, S.M., Lavelle, M., Rosenburg, K.R., Hawthorne, V.M.: Maturational timing as a factor in female fatness and obesity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 43, 879–883 (1986)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hazewinkel, M.: Student Test. Springer, Encyclopedia of Mathematics (2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kayoung, L., Sangyeoup, L., Kim, Y., Kim, Y.: Waist circumference, dual-energy X-ray absortiometrically measured abdominal adiposity, and computed tomographically derived intra-abdominal fat area on detecting metabolic risk factors in obese women. Nutrition 24, 625–631 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim, J., Shen, W., Gallagher, D., Jones Jr., A., Wang, Z., Wang, J., Heshka, S., Heymsfield, S.B.: Total-body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children and adolescents. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 84, 1014–1020 (2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kopelman, P.G.: Obesity as a medical problem. Nature 404, 635–643 (2000)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kozieł, S., Kołodziej, H., Lipowicz, A., Boznański, A.: Otłuszczenie, a ryzyko chorób sercowo-naczyniowych u 14-letniej młodzieży dolnośląskiej (Adiposity in the context of a risk of cardiovascular disease in a 14-year-old adolescents of Lower Silesia). Monografie Zakładu Antropologii PAN, Wrocław 19 (2000). (in Polish)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lassek, W.D., Gaulin, S.J.C.: Brief communication: menarche is related to fat distribution. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 133, 1147–1151 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lewitt, A., Mądro, E., Krupienicz, A.: Podstawy teoretyczne i zastosowania analizy impedancji bioelektrycznej (BIA) (Theoretical basics and applications of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). Endokrynologia, Otyłość i Zaburzenia Przemiany Materii 3, 79–84 (2007). (in Polish)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lilliefors, H.: On the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality with mean and variance unknown. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 62, 399–402 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McCarty, H.D., Ellis, S.M., Cole, T.J.: Central overweight and obesity in British youth aged 11–16 years: cross sectional surveys of waist circumference. Br. Med. J. 326, 624–626 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Okosun, I.S., Chandra, K.M., Boev, A., Boltri, J.M., Choi, S.T., Parish, D.C., Dever, G.E.: Abdominal adiposity in U.S. adults: prevalence and trends, 1960–2000. Prev. Med. 39, 197–206 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Roemmich, J.N., Clark, P.A., Weltman, A., Rogol, A.D.: Alterations in growth and body composition during puberty. I. Comparing multicompartment body composition models. J. Appl. Physiol. 83, 927–935 (1997)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rush, E.C., Puniani, K., Valencia, M.E., Davies, P.S., Plank, L.D.: Estimation of body fatness from body mass index and bioelectrical impedance: comparison of New Zealand European, Maori and Pacific Island children. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 57, 1394–1401 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Welch, B.L.: The generalization of ”student’s” problem when several different population variances are involved. Biometrika 34, 28–35 (1947)MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    World Health Organization, Branca, F., Nikogosian, H., Lobstein, T. (eds).: The challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategies for response. Summary. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Anthropology, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life SciencesWrocławPoland
  2. 2.Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Informatics and Medical EquipmentSilesian University of TechnologyZabrzePoland
  3. 3.Polish Academy of Sciences, Unit of AnthropologyWrocławPoland

Personalised recommendations