Advertisement

Positive Cross-Cultural Scholarship Research

  • Łukasz SułkowskiEmail author
  • Michał Chmielecki
Chapter
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)

Abstract

Despite ongoing change, most cross-cultural management theory and research tends to emphasize problems and misunderstandings associated with cross-cultural interactions and at the same time deemphasize the positive role of cross-cultural interactions within organizations. We unpack positive features of cross-cultural dynamics by identifying the key processes, conditions and mechanisms through which diversity improves team outcomes by introducing the lens of “Positive Organizational Scholarship”. The goal of this chapter is to showcase research that sheds light on the positive dynamics but also the positive outcomes associated with cross-cultural differences in a wide range of organizational contexts. We are fully aware that this problem-oriented perspective on cross-cultural differences does have merits; nevertheless we would like to strongly indicate that cross-cultural differences may create numerous opportunities and benefits such as increased productivity and creativity, and better problem-solving quality.

Keywords

Positive cross-cultural scholarship Cross-cultural research Positive psychology 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge that this chapter is supported by National Science Centre in Poland (research grant no. DEC-2013/09/B/HS4/00498).

References

  1. Adler NJ (2002) International dimensions of organizational behavior, 4th edn. Thomson/South-Western, Cincinnati, OHGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson LM, Giacalone RA, Jurkiewicz CL (2007) On the relationship of hope and gratitude to corporate social responsibility. J Bus Ethics 70:401–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arokiasamy P, Uttamacharya U, Jain K, Biritwum RB, Yawson AE, Wu F, Rodríguez AS (2015) The impact of multimorbidity on adult physical and mental health in low-and middle-income countries: what does the study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE) reveal? BMC Med 13(1):178–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Avey JB, Patera JK, West BJ (2006) The implications of positive psychological capital on employee absenteeism. J Leadersh Org Stud 13(2):42–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagozzi RP (2003) Positive and negative emotions in organizations. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 176–193Google Scholar
  6. Baker W, Dutton JE (2007) Enabling positive social capital in organizations. In: Dutton JE, Ragins B (eds) Exploring positive relationships at work: building a theoretical and research foundation. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp 325–346Google Scholar
  7. Baker W, Cross R, Wooten M (2003) Positive organizational network analysis and energizing relationships. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 328–342Google Scholar
  8. Berry JW, Poortinga YH, Segall MH, Dasen PR (2002) Cross-cultural psychology: research and applications, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  9. Berry J, Poortinga Y, Breugelmans S, Chasiotis A, Sam D (2011) Crosscultural psychology: research and applications, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bjerke B (2004) Kultura a style przywództwa zarządzanie w warunkach globalizacji. Oficyna Ekonomiczna, KrakówGoogle Scholar
  11. Björkman I, Stahl G, Vaara E (2007) Cultural differences and capability transfer in acquisitions: the mediating roles of capability complementarity, absorptive capacity, and social integration. J Int Bus Stud 38(5):658–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bono JE, Ilies R (2006) Charisma, positive emotion and mood contagion. Leadersh Q 17:317–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brislin R (1999) Understanding culture’s influence on behavior. Wadsworth Publishing, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  14. Britt TW, Dickinson JM, Moore D, Castro CA, Adler AB (2007) Correlates and consequences of moral versus depression under stressful conditions. J Occup Health Psychol 12(1):34–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cameron KS (2003) Organizational virtuousness and performance. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 48–65Google Scholar
  16. Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) (2003) Positive organizational scholarship: foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  17. Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE, Wrzesniewski A (2003a) Developing a discipline of positive organizational scholarship. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 361–370Google Scholar
  18. Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (2003b) Foundations of positive organizational scholarship. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 3–13Google Scholar
  19. Chirkov VI, Sheldon KM, Ryan RM (2011) The struggle for happiness and autonomy in cultural and personal contexts: an overview. In: Chirkov IV, Ryan RM, Sheldon KM (eds) Human autonomy in cross-cultural context: perspectives on the psychology of agency, freedom, and well-being. Springer, New York, NY, pp 1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chmielecki M (2011) The importance of culture in global public relations. J Intercultural Manage 3(2):229–240Google Scholar
  21. Chodorek M (2010) Stan pozytywnego potencjału organizacji w polskich przedsiębiorstwach—wynika badań. In: Stankiewicz MJ (ed) Pozytywny potencjał organizacji. Dom Organizatora, Toruń, pp 53–74Google Scholar
  22. Cooperrider DL, Sekerka LE (2003) Toward a theory of positive organizational change. In: Cameron JE, Dutton RE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 225–240Google Scholar
  23. Cooperrider DL, Whitney D (2005) Appreciative inquiry: a positive revolution in change. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  24. Cooperrider DL, Sorenson PF, Whitney D, Yeager TF (eds) (2000) Appreciative inquiry. Stipes, Champaign, IL. Cross-cultural positive psychology—drpaulwong.com. Accessed 15 Jan 2015Google Scholar
  25. Cox TH, Blake S (1991) Managing cultural diversity: implications for organizational competitiveness. Acad Manage Exec 5(3):45–56Google Scholar
  26. Csikszentmihalyi M (1990) Przepływ. Psychologia optymalnego doświadczenia, wyd. 1: STUDIO EMKA, Warszawa 1997, wyd. 2: Santorski 2005Google Scholar
  27. Csikszentmihalyi M (1997) Finding flow. Basic, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  28. Csikszentmihalyi M (1998) Urok codzienności. Psychologia emocjonalnego przepływu. Seria Masterminds. Wydawnictwo W.A.B, WarszawaGoogle Scholar
  29. Csikszentmihalyi M, Abuhamdeh S, Nakamura J (2005) Flow. In: Elliot A (ed) Handbook of competence and motivation. The Guilford Press, New York, NY, pp 598–698Google Scholar
  30. Cummings TG, Worley CG (2005) Organization development and change, 8th edn. Thomson South-Western, Mason, OHGoogle Scholar
  31. Donaldson T, Preston LE (1995) The stakeholder theory of the corporation: concepts, evidence, and implications. Acad Manage Rev 20(1):65–91Google Scholar
  32. Doz Y, Santos J, Williamson P (2004) Diversity: the key to innovation advantage. Eur Bus Forum 17:25–27Google Scholar
  33. Durlak JA, Wells AM (1997) Primary prevention programs for children and adolescents: a meta-analytic review. Am J Community Psychol 25:115–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dutton JE, Sonenshein S (2007) Positive organizational scholarship. In: Lopez S, Beauchamps A (eds) Encyclopedia of positive psychology. Blackwell, Malden, MAGoogle Scholar
  35. Emmons RA (2003) Acts of gratitude in organizations. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 81–93Google Scholar
  36. Erez M, Earley PC (1987) Comparative analysis of goal-setting strategies across cultures. J Appl Psychol 72:658–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fineman S (2006) On being positive: concerns and counterpoints Stephen Fineman. Acad Manag Rev 31(2):270–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fiol M (1991) Managing culture as a competitive resource: an identity-based view of sustainable competitive advantage. J Manage 17(1):191–211Google Scholar
  39. Fredrickson BL (2003) Positive emotions and upward spirals in organizations. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 163–175Google Scholar
  40. Froh JJ (2004) The history of positive psychology: truth be told. NYS Psychol 16:18–20Google Scholar
  41. Gibson CB, Waller MJ, Carpenter MA, Conte JM (2007) Antecedents, consequences, and moderators of time perspective heterogeneity for knowledge management in MNO teams. J Organ Behav 28(8):1005–1034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Glińska-Neweś A (2007) Kulturowe uwarunkowania zarządzania wiedzą w przedsiębiorstwie. Wydawnictwo TNOiK “Dom Organizatora”, ToruńGoogle Scholar
  43. Glinska-Neweś A (2010) Pozytywny Potencjał Organizacji jako rozwojowa architektura zasobów przedsiębiorstwa, w Pozytywny Potencjał Organizacji, Wstęp do użytecznej teorii zarządzania, red. M. J Stankiewicz, Dom Organizatora, ToruńGoogle Scholar
  44. Grant N, Wardle J, Steptoe A (2009) The relationship between life satisfaction and health behavior: a cross-cultural analysis of young adults. Int J Behav Med 16(3):259–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Guang X (2013) Buddhist impact on Chinese culture. Asian Philos 23(4):305–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hatch E (1983) Culture and morality: the relativity of values in anthropology. Columbia University Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  47. Hefferon K, Boniwell I (2011) Introduction to positive psychology. In: Positive psychology: theory, research and applications. McGraw Hill Open University Press, Maidenhead, BerkshireGoogle Scholar
  48. Helliwell JF (2003) How’s life? Combining individual and national variables to explain subjective well-being. Econ Model 20(2):331–360. doi: 10.1016/S0264-9993(02)00057-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Helliwell JF (2006) Well-being, social capital and public policy: what’s new? Econ J 116(510):C34–C45. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-0297.2006.01074.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Helliwell JF, Putnam RD (2004) The social context of well–being. Philoso Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359(1449):1435–1446. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2004.1522 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hoffman AJ (1996) A strategic response to investor activism. Sloan Manage Rev, Winter, pp 51–64Google Scholar
  52. Hofstede G (1980) Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage, Beverly Hills, CAGoogle Scholar
  53. Hofstede G (1991) Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. McGraw-Hill, MaidenheadGoogle Scholar
  54. Hofstede G, Hofstede GJ (2005) Cultures and organizations: software of the mind, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  55. Ilies R, Nahrgang JD, Morgeson FO (2007) Leader-member exchange and citizenship behaviors: a meta-analysis. J Appl Psychol 92(1):269–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Imada T, Ellsworth PC (2011) Proud Americans and lucky Japanese: cultural differences in appraisal and corresponding emotion. Emotion 11(2):329–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jahoda M (1958) Current concepts of positive mental health. Basic Books, New York, NYCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Józefowicz B (2010) Prorozwojowe zachowanie pracownicze jako wynik pozytywnego potencjału organizacji, pozytywnej kultury organizacyjnej i pozytywnego klimatu organizacji. In: Stankiewicz MJ (pr. zb. red.). Pozytywny potencjał organizacji. Dom Organizatora, Toruń, pp 141–158Google Scholar
  59. Kalinowska-Andrian K (2006) Positive organizational scholarship—nowy trend w nauce zarządzania. Zaproszenie do świata pozytywów. E-mentor 1(13)Google Scholar
  60. Karaszewski R (2010) Rola przywództwa w kreowaniu pozytywnego potencjału organizacji. In: Stankiewicz MJ (pr. zb. red.). Pozytywny potencjał organizacji. Dom Organizatora, Toruń, pp 253–277Google Scholar
  61. Kim U, Yang K-S, Hwang K-K (eds) (2006) Indigenous and cultural psychology: understanding people in context (International and Cultural Psychology). Springer, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  62. Kitayama S, Markus HR, Matsumoto H, Norasakkunit V (1997) Individual and collective processes in the construction of the self: self enhancement in the United States and self-criticism in Japan. J Pers Soc Psychol 72:1245–1267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lehman DR, Chiu C, Schaller M (2004) Psychology and culture. Annu Rev Psychol 55:689–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Leong FTL, Wong PTP (2003) Optimal functioning from cross-cultural perspectives. In: Walsh B (ed) Counseling psychology and optimal human functioning. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp 123–150Google Scholar
  65. Levin DZ, Cross R, Abrams LC, Lesser EL (2004) Trust and knowledge sharing: a critical combination. In: Lesser E, Prusak L (eds) Creating value with knowledge. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  66. Lewicki R, Saunders D, Minton J, Barry B (2006) Negotiation. McGraw-Hill Irwin, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  67. Lomas T (2015) Positive cross-cultural psychology: exploring similarity and difference in constructions and experiences of wellbeing. Int J Wellbeing 5(4):60–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lorenczewski R (2010) Rola interesariuszy przedsiębiorstwa w pobudzaniu pozytywnego potencjału organizacji. In: Stankiewicz MJ (pr. zb. red.). Pozytywny potencjał organizacji. Dom Organizatora, Toruń, pp 241–252Google Scholar
  69. Lucas RE, Schimmack U (2009) Income and well-being: how big is the gap between the rich and the poor? J Res Pers 43(1):75–78. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2008.09.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lund C, Breen A, Flisher AJ, Kakuma R, Corrigall J, Joska JA, . . . Patel V (2010) Poverty and common mental disorders in low and middle income countries: a systematic review. Soc Sci Med 71(3):517–528Google Scholar
  71. Luthans F (2002) Positive organizational behavior. Developing and managing psychological strengths. Acad Manage Exec 16(1):57–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Luthans F, Avolio B (2003) Authentic leadership development. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship: foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 241–258Google Scholar
  73. Luthans KW, Jensen SM (2005) The linkage between psychological capital and commitment to organizational mission: a study of nurses. J Nurs Adm 35(6):304–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Luthans F, Avey JB, Avolio BJ, Norman SM, Combs GM (2006) Psychological capital development: toward a micro-intervention. J Organ Behav 27:387–393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Margolis JD, Walsh JP (2003) Misery loves companies: rethinking social initiatives by business. Admin Sci Q 48:268–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Morosini P, Shane S, Singh H (1998) National cultural distance and cross-border acquisition performance. J Int Bus Stud 29(1):137–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Nachum L, Zaheer S, Gross S (2008) Does it matter where countries are? Proximity to knowledge, markets and resources, and MNE location choices. Manage Sci 54(7):1252–1265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Nisbett R (2003) The geography of thought: how Asians and Westerners think differently… why. Free Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  79. Oishi S, Graham J (2010) Social ecology : lost and found in psychological science. Perspect Psychol Sci 5:356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. O’Reilly CA, Williams KY, Barsade S (1998) Group demography and innovation: does diversity help? In: Mannix E, Neale M (eds) Research in the management of groups and teams 1. JAI Press, Greenwich, CT, pp 183–207Google Scholar
  81. Park N, Peterson CHM (2003) Virtues and organizations. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 33–47Google Scholar
  82. Peterson C (2006) A primer in positive psychology. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  83. Peterson C (2009) Positive psychology. Reclaiming Children Youth 18(2):3–7Google Scholar
  84. Peterson CHM, Seligman EP (2003) Positive organizational studies: lessons from positive psychology. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 14–27Google Scholar
  85. Peyrat-Guillard D, Glińska-Neweś A (2010) Positive organizational potential, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior: a French/Polish comparison. J Positive Manage 1(1):47–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Podsakoff PM, MacKenzie SB, Paine JB, Bachrach DG (2000) Organizational citizenship behaviors: a critical review of the theoretical and empirical. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive Organizational Scholarship: Foundations of a New Discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  87. Roberts LM (2006) Response—shifting the lens on organizational life: the added value of positive scholarship. Acad Manage Rev 31(2):292–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Seligman MEP (1999) The president’s address. Am Psychol 54:559–562Google Scholar
  89. Seligman MEP (2004) Can happiness be taught? Daedalus, SpringGoogle Scholar
  90. Seligman MEP (2011) Flourish: a visionary new understanding of happiness and wellbeing. Free Press, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  91. Seligman MEP, Csikszentmihalyi M (2000) Positive psychology: an introduction. Am Psychol 55:5–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Seligman MEP, Steen TA, Park N, Peterson C (2005) Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions. Am Psychol 60(5):410–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shaw J (2011) Freedom: east and west. Sophia 50(3):481–497. doi: 10.1007/s11841-011-0237-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Snyder SM, Rugino TA, Hornig M, Stein MA (2015) Integration of an EEG biomarker with a clinician’s ADHD evaluation. Brain Behav 5:e00330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Stahl GK, Tung RL (2014) Towards a more balanced treatment of culture in international business studies: The need for positive cross-cultural scholarship. J Int Bus Stud, pp 1–24. http://www.palgrave-journals.com/doifinder/10.1057/jibs.2014.68
  96. Stahl GK, Maznevski ML, Voigt A, Jonsen K (2010) Unraveling the effects of cultural diversity in teams: a meta analysis of research on multicultural work groups. J Int Bus Stud 41(4):690–709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Stankiewicz MJ (2010) Uwarunkowania pozytywnego potencjału organizacji—zarys modelu kształtowania PPO w przedsiębiorstwie (ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem przedsiębiorstw funkcjonujących w Polsce). In: Stankiewicz MJ (pr. zb. red.) Pozytywny potencjał organizacji. Dom Organizatora, Toruń, pp. 215–239Google Scholar
  98. Suutari V, Makela K (2007) The career capital of managers with global careers. J Manage Psychol 22(7):628–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Triandis HC (1994) Culture and social behavior. McGraw-Hill, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  100. Trompenaars F, Humpden-Turner C (1997) Riding the waves of culture: understanding diversity in global business. McGraw-Hill, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  101. Wanberg CR (2012) The individual experience of unemployment. Ann Rev Psychol 63:369–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Weick KE (2003) Positive organizing and organizational tragedy. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 66–80Google Scholar
  103. Wong PTP (2011) Positive psychology 2.0: towards a balanced interactive model of the good life. Can Psychol 52(2):69–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wrzesniewski A (2003) Finding positive meaning in work. In: Cameron KS, Dutton JE, Quinn RE (eds) Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline. Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, pp 296–308Google Scholar
  105. Zaheer S, Schomaker MS, Nachum L (2012) Distance without direction: restoring credibility to a much-loved Construct. J Int Bus Stud 43(1):18–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jagiellonian UniversityKrakowPoland
  2. 2.University of Social SciencesLodzPoland

Personalised recommendations