Conclusions: The Willing, the Cautious, and the Ambivalent

  • Malena Britz
Part of the New Security Challenges book series (NSECH)


The book concludes by dividing the countries studied into three groups: the willing, the cautious, and the ambivalent, according to their willingness to participate in the operations studied. The chapter asserts that the normative frameworks of the strategic cultures explain decisions to participate or not in international military operations, and how such decisions are justified. The regulatory frameworks decide how quickly such decisions can be taken, which in turn might affect willingness to participate if the domestic process is outpaced by a rapid international process. The findings of the book are also used to analyse the first six months of air raids in Iraq after the Iraqi government asked the USA and its allies for help to fight the Islamic State/Daesh in the summer of 2014.


Armed Force Security Council International Operation Normative Framework Security Council Resolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author is deeply indebted to research assistants David Rangdahl and Thomas Olsson for help with information in comparing how the different countries have participated in the operations studied in the chapters of the book, and for compiling information on our ‘reference case’—the beginning of air strikes in Iraq in 2014. Some sections in this chapter rely on their hard work.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Malena Britz
    • 1
  1. 1.StockholmSweden

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