Do Erroneous Examples Improve Learning in Addition to Problem Solving and Worked Examples?
Learning from Problem Solving (PS), Worked Examples (WE) and Erroneous Examples (ErrEx) have all proven to be effective learning strategies. However, there is still no agreement on what kind of assistance (in terms of different learning activities) should be provided to students in Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) to optimize learning. A previous study  found that alternating worked examples and problem solving (AEP) was superior to using just one type of learning tasks. In this paper, we compare AEP to a new instructional strategy which, in addition to PS and WEs, additionally offers erroneous examples to students. The results indicate that erroneous examples prepare students better for problem solving in comparison to worked examples. Explaining and correcting erroneous examples also leads to improved debugging and problem-solving skills.
KeywordsIntelligent tutoring system Worked examples Erroneous examples Assistance Problem-solving SQL-Tutor
- 10.McLaren, B.M., Lim, S.-J., Koedinger, K.R.: When and how often should worked examples be given to students? New results and a summary of the current state of research. In: Proceedings of 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, pp. 2176–2181 (2008)Google Scholar
- 15.Najar, A.S., Mitrovic, A.: Do novices and advanced students benefit differently from worked examples and ITS? In: Proceedings of International Conference Computers in Education, pp. 20–29 (2013)Google Scholar
- 16.Mitrovic, A.: An intelligent SQL-Tutor on the web. Artif. Intell. Educ. 13, 173–197 (2003)Google Scholar
- 18.Chi, M.T., Leeuw, N., Chiu, M.H., LaVancher, C.: Eliciting self-explanations improves understanding. Cogn. Sci. 18(3), 439–477 (1994)Google Scholar
- 19.Kim, R.S., Weitz, R., Heffernan, N.T., Krach, N.: Tutored problem solving vs.“pure” worked examples. In: Proceedings of 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Cognitive Science Society (2009)Google Scholar
- 20.McLaren, B.M., van Gog, T., Ganoe, C., Yaron, D., Karabinos, M.: Exploring the assistance dilemma: comparing instructional support in examples and problems. In: Trausan-Matu, S., Boyer, K.E., Crosby, M., Panourgia, K. (eds.) ITS 2014. LNCS, vol. 8474, pp. 354–361. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar