Understanding Procedural Knowledge for Solving Arithmetic Task by Externalization

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9684)


Students build cognitive models for solving a crypt-arithmetic task in a learning environment that enables them to formally describe various types of procedural knowledge in a group learning setting in which each student is allowed to refer to the procedural rules described by the other group members. Experimental evaluation showed that: (1) three-quarters of participants successfully constructed valid models with the system, and (2) participants learned to describe procedural knowledge more precisely not only for the training task (crypt-arithmetic task) but also for a transfer task (bug identification for a multi-column subtraction problem).


Procedural knowledge Cognitive models Externalization 

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazuhisa Miwa
    • 1
  • Hitoshi Terai
    • 2
  • Kazuya Shibayama
    • 1
  1. 1.Nagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Kinki UniversityIizukaJapan

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