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Expectations Frustrated by Changes in Work

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Part of the Dynamics of Virtual Work book series (DVW)

Abstract

The relationship to work and the meaning attached to work are shaped by individuals’ experience of the labour market and of employment: the way in which they have found or failed to find employment, their sense of job security, their position at work, the style of management, ways of working and modes of evaluation, the type and degree of knowledge and skill required, the scope for negotiation and so on. The nature of the experience is intimately related not only to individual characteristics, notably gender and socio-economic status, but also to age in that this can entail considerable differences in the encounter with the realities of work and employment. The meanings individuals attach to work and to their participation in it are intrinsically linked to their own experience of a world of work that has undergone profound transformations over the last three decades. Very few of the key features that characterised the Fordist firm of the post-War period remain in place. Ways of organising production, conceptions of the individual at work, the power relationship between workers and employers: all have changed radically.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    On the new public management, see John Cultiaux, Les Perdants de la modernisation (Paris: Desclée de Brouwer, 2012) and “New public management et professions dans l’État: au-delà des oppositions, quelles recompositions?”, Sociologie du travail 53:3 (July–September 2011).

  2. 2.

    Tony J. Watson, Sociology, Work and Organisation, 6th ed. (London; New York: Routledge, 2012).

  3. 3.

    Mike Noon, Paul Blyton and Kevin Morell, The Realities of Work: Experiencing Work and Employment in Contemporary Society, 4th ed. (London: Palgrave Macmillan), 2013.

  4. 4.

    Suzanne Berger, Made in monde (Paris: Le Seuil, 2006).

  5. 5.

    Patricia Vendramin and Gérard Valenduc, Technologies et flexibilité. Les défis du travail à l’ère numérique (Paris: Editions Liaisons: 2002).

  6. 6.

    Patricia Vendramin, Le Travail au singulier. Le lien social à l’épreuve de l’individualisation (Louvain-la-Neuve, Academia-Bruylant, 2004).

  7. 7.

    Jean-Claude Barbier and Henri Nadel, La Flexibilité du travail et de l’emploi (Paris: Flammarion, 2000); Bruno Maggi, “Critique de la notion de flexibilité”, Revue française de gestion 162 (March 2006), pp. 35–49; Daniel Mercure, “Nouvelles dynamiques d’entreprise et transformation des formes d’emploi. Du fordisme à l’impartition flexible”, in Jean Bernier, Rodrigue Blouin and Gilles Ladlamme, eds, L’Incessante Évolution des formes d’emploi and la stagnation des lois du travail (Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval, 2001), pp. 5–20.

  8. 8.

    Patricia Vendramin and Gérard Valenduc, L’Avenir du travail dans la société de l’information. Enjeux individuels and collectifs (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2000).

  9. 9.

    Eurostat, European Labour Force Survey 2014.

  10. 10.

    Patricia Vendramin, ed., “Changing Social Patterns of Relation to Work. Qualitative Approach through Biographies and Group Interviews”, report of the SPReW project (CIT5–028048 – European Commission, DG Research, 2008), downloadable at http://www.ftu-namur.org/fichiers/SPReW-D11-Finalreport-web.pdf

  11. 11.

    Patricia Vendramin, Les Jeunes, le Travail and l’Emploi. Enquête auprès des employés de moins de 30 ans en Belgium francophone (Namur: FTU/Jeunes CSC, 2007), available at www.ftu-namur.org/fichiers/Jeunes-travail-emploi.pdf.

  12. 12.

    Vendramin, “Changing Social Patterns of Relation to Work”.

  13. 13.

    Patricia Vendramin, Gérard Valenduc, Serge Volkoff, Anne-Françoise Molinié, Évelyne Léonard and Michel Ajzen, Sustainable Work and the Ageing Workforce (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2012).

  14. 14.

    Restructurings: Workers Health at Crisis Point, special issue, HesaMag 4 (Autumn–Winter 2011).

  15. 15.

    Matthieu de Nanteuil-Miribel and Assâad El Akremi, eds, La Société flexible (Paris: Érès, 2005); Barbier and Nadel, La Flexibilité du travail et de l’emploi; Arne L. Kalleberg, “Precarious Work, Insecure Workers: Employment Relations in Transition”, American Sociological Review 74:1 (2009), pp. 1–22.

  16. 16.

    Michael J. Piore and Peter B. Doeringer, Internal Labor Market and Manpower Analysis (Lexington, MA: Heath, 1971); John Atkinson and David John Storey, Employment, the Small Firm and the Labour Market (London: Routledge, 1994).

  17. 17.

    Atkinson and Storey, Employment, the Small Firm and the Labour Market.

  18. 18.

    Patrick Cingolani, ed., Un travail sans limites? Subordination, tensions, résistances (Paris: ERES, 2012); Anne-Marie Guillemard, ed., Où va la protection sociale (Paris: PUF, 2008).

  19. 19.

    Serge Paugam, Le salarié de la précarité, 2nd ed. (Paris: PUF, 2007).

  20. 20.

    Jelle Visser, “Union Membership Statistics in 24 Countries”, Monthly Labor Review 129:1 (January 2006), pp. 38–49; Bernhard Ebbinghaus and Jelle Visser, Trade Unions in Western Europe Since 1945 (London: Macmillan Reference, 2000).

  21. 21.

    Robert Castel, “Au-delà du salariat ou en deçà de l’emploi? L’institutionnalisation du précariat”, in Serge Paugam, ed., Repenser la solidarité (Paris: PUF, 2007), pp. 415–433; Patrick Cingolani, La Précarité (Paris, PUF, 2005); Sophie Béroud and Paul Bouffartigue, eds, Quand le travail se précarise, quelles résistances collectives? (Paris: La Dispute, 2009).

  22. 22.

    Castel, “Au-delà du salariat?”

  23. 23.

    Henning Lohmann, “Welfare States, Labour Market Institutions and the Working Poor: A Comparative Analysis of 20 European Countries” (DIW Discussion Paper 776, Berlin, 2008); Hans-Jürgen Andreß and Henning Lohmann, The Working Poor in Europe: Employment, Poverty and Globalization (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2008).

  24. 24.

    Low pay is here defined as an hourly rate less than two-thirds of the median. See Joel F. Handler, Social Citizenship and Workfare in the United States and Western Europe: The Paradox of Inclusion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004).

  25. 25.

    On the failings of the German model see Steffen Lehndorff, ed., A Triumph of Failed Ideas: European Models of Capitalism in the Crisis (Brussels: ETUI, 2011).

  26. 26.

    For France, see Eve Caroli and Jérôme Gautié, eds, Low Wage Work in France (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2008).

  27. 27.

    Dominique Anxo and Christine Erhel, “Irréversibilité du temps, réversibilité des choix? Les fondements des ‘marchés transitionnels’ en termes de trajectoires de vie”, Revue française de socio-économie 1 (2008); Catherine Pollak and Bernard Gazier, “L’apport des analyses longitudinales dans la connaissance des phénomènes de pauvreté et d’exclusion sociale: un survey de la littérature étrangère”, Les Travaux de l’Observatoire national de la pauvreté and de l’exclusion sociale 2007–2008 (Paris: La Documentation française, 2008), pp. 447–490; Günther Schmid and Bernard Gazier, eds, The Dynamics of Full Employment: Social Integration by Transitional Labour Markets (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2002).

  28. 28.

    Eurostat, Statistics on Income and Living Conditions.

  29. 29.

    Vendramin, Les Jeunes, le Travail and l’Emploi.

  30. 30.

    European Commission, “Towards Common Principles of Flexicurity: More and Better Jobs through Flexibility and Security”, COM 359 final, 27 June 2007.

  31. 31.

    Jean-Claude Barbier, “Au-delà de la ‘flex-sécurité’, une cohérence sociétale solidaire au Danemark”, in Paugam, ed., Repenser la solidarité, pp. 473–490; Amparo Serrano Pascual, “Batailles d’idées dans l’espace européen: la lutte contre le chômage and le combat pour le nommer”, Revue de l’Ires 60 (2009), pp. 47–64.

  32. 32.

    Dominique Méda, “Flexicurité: quel équilibre entre flexibilité and sécurité?”, Droit social, June 2009, pp. 763–775.

  33. 33.

    Antoine Bevort, Michel Lallement and Chantal Nicole-Drancourt, eds, Flexicurité: la protection de l’emploi en débat, special issue of Problèmes politiques et sociaux 931 (December 2006); Amparo Serrano Pascual, ed., La flexicurité. Mutation symbolique de la notion de sécurité, special issue of Les Politiques sociales 72:3/4 (2012).

  34. 34.

    Maarten Keune and Maria Jepsen, “Not Balanced and Hardly New: The European Commission’s Quest for Flexicurity” (ETUI Working Paper 2007.01); Jean-Michel Bonvin and Pascale Vielle, “Une flexicurité au service des citoyens européens”, Revue de l’Ires 63 (2009); Dominique Méda, “La flexicurité peut-elle encore constituer une ambition pour l’Europe?”, Formation emploi, March–May 2011, pp. 97–109; Dominique Méda, “La flexicurité à la française: un échec avéré”, pp. 86–97, in Serrano Pascual, ed., La flexicurité.

  35. 35.

    Luc Boltanski and Ève Chiapello, The New Spirit of Capitalism, trans. Gregory Elliott (London; New York: Verso, 2005); see too the literature of the entrepreneurial self, such as Bob Aubrey, “L’entreprise individuelle, vers un new modèle de travail”, Futuribles 207 (March 1996); William Bridges, Jobshift: How To Prosper In A Workplace Without Jobs (Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1994) etc.

  36. 36.

    Philippe Askenazy, Les Désordres du travail, Enquête sur le nouveau productivisme (Paris: Le Seuil, 2004); Michel Lallement, Michel Gollac, Marc Loriol, Pascal Marichalar, Catherine Marry et al., “Maux du travail: dégradation, recomposition ou illusion?”, Sociologie du Travail 53:1 (2011), pp. 3–36.

  37. 37.

    Boltanski and Chiapello, The New Spirit of Capitalism.

  38. 38.

    Boltanski and Chiapello, The New Spirit of Capitalism, p. 115.

  39. 39.

    “Widening Women’s Work in Information and Communications Technology” (WWW-ICT), EU research project covering seven countries carried out for the “Information Society Technologies” programme under the Fifth European Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (2003–2004), and MéTIC (Métiers des TIC), a research project carried out in French-speaking Belgium for the European Social Fund and the Wallonian Minister for Employment and Training (2002–2004).

  40. 40.

    Vendramin, Le Travail au singulier; WWW-ICT; MéTIC.

  41. 41.

    Stefan Voswinkel, “L’admiration sans appréciation. Les paradoxes de la double reconnaissance du travail subjectivisé”, Travailler 18 (2007), pp. 59–87.

  42. 42.

    Patricia Vendramin, “Nouvelles formes de coopération au travail”, Humanisme et entreprise 273 (October 2005), pp. 89–107.

  43. 43.

    Béatrice Appay, La Dictature du succès. Le paradoxe de l’autonomie contrôlée and de la précarisation (Paris: L’Harmattan, 2005).

  44. 44.

    Gilbert de Terssac, “Autonomie”, in Antoine Bevort, Annette Jobert, Michel Lallement and Arnaud Mias, eds, Dictionnaire du travail (Paris: PUF, 2012), pp. 47–53.

  45. 45.

    Eurofound, Ten Years of Working Conditions in the European Union, EF/00/128/EN (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2001).

  46. 46.

    Eurofound, Useful But Unused: Group Work in Europe. Findings From the EPOC Survey, EF/98/59/EN (Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1996).

  47. 47.

    Eurofound, EWCS 2010.

  48. 48.

    The index is based on the scope allowed to groups in the distribution of tasks and in the selection of the group leader.

  49. 49.

    Vendramin, Le Travail au singulier; Jérôme Cihuelo, “Le quotidien du projet”, in Guy Minguet and Christian Thuderoz, Travail, entreprise et société (Paris: PUF, 2005), pp. 143–160.

  50. 50.

    Vincent de Gaulejac, La Société malade de la gestion (Paris: Le Seuil, 2005); Nicole Aubert and Vincent de Gaulejac, Le Coût de l’excellence (Paris: Le Seuil, 1991); Danièle Linhart, ed., Pourquoi travaillons-nous? (Paris: Érès, 2008); Marie-Anne Dujarier, L’Idéal au travail (Paris: PUF, 2006).

  51. 51.

    Vincent de Gaulejac, Les Raisons de la colère (Paris: Le Seuil, 2011).

  52. 52.

    Peter Boxall and Keith Macky, “High-Involvement Work Processes, Work Intensification and Employee Well-Being”, Work Employment & Society 28:6 (December 2014) pp. 963–984.

  53. 53.

    For France, see Bruno Mettling, Transformation numérique et vie au travail, report submitted to the Minister of Labour, Paris, September 2015.

  54. 54.

    Eurofound, EWCS 2010.

  55. 55.

    Laurent Taskin and Patricia Vendramin, Le Télétravail, une vague silencieuse (Louvain-la-Neuve: PUL, 2004).

  56. 56.

    Maëlezig Bigi, Olivier Cousin, Laetitia Sibaud, Dominique Méda and Michel Wieviorka, Travailler au XXIème siècle. Des salariés en quête de reconnaissance (Paris: Robert Laffont, 2015).

  57. 57.

    Pierre Veltz, “La nouvelle révolution industrielle”, Revue du Mauss 18 (2001), pp. 67–71.

  58. 58.

    Linhart, ed., Pourquoi travaillons-nous?

  59. 59.

    Patricia Vendramin, “Les TIC, complices de l’intensification du travail”, in Philippe Askenazy, Damien Cartron, Frédéric de Coninck and Michel Gollac, eds, Organisation et intensité du travail (Paris: Octares, 2006), pp. 129–136.

  60. 60.

    Paugam, Le salarié de la précarité, p. 26.

  61. 61.

    Bigi, Cousin, Sibaud, Méda and Wieviorka, Travailler au XXIème siècle.

  62. 62.

    Robert A. Karasek, “Job Demands, Job Decision Latitude, and Mental Strain: Implications for Job Redesign”, Administrative Science Quarterly 24:2 (1979), pp. 285–308.

  63. 63.

    Robert A. Karasek and Töres Theorell, Healthy Work: Stress, Productivity, and the Reconstruction of Working Life (New York: Basic Books, 1990).

  64. 64.

    Marie Buscatto, Marc Loriol and Jean-Marc Weller, eds, Au-delà du stress au travail (Paris: Érès, 2008); Marc Loriol, “Pourquoi tout ce stress?”, Sociologie du travail 53:1 (2011), pp. 3–36.

  65. 65.

    This includes professionals in science and engineering; health; teaching; business and administration; information and communications technology; legal, social and cultural.

  66. 66.

    This includes associate professionals in accounting, finance, property and business services, arts and leisure; sports coaches, officials and instructors; social workers, customs inspectors, tax officers and police officers; administrative and specialised secretaries; technicians in industry, science, transport; supervisors and controllers; media and ICT technicians; medical and paramedical assistants and technicians, nurses and midwives, health workers and inspectors.

  67. 67.

    Francis Green, Demanding Work: The Paradox of Job Quality in the Affluent Economy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005).

  68. 68.

    Christophe Dejours, Travail, usure mentale (Paris: Bayard, 1980).

  69. 69.

    Pascale Molinier, “Les approches cliniques du travail, un débat en souffrance”, Sociologie du travail 53:1 (January–March 2011), pp. 3–36, and “Nouvelles approches des maux du travail”, La Vie des idées, September 2009; Michel Gollac, “Quelques raisons de se plaindre”, Sociologie du travail 53:1 (January–March 2011), pp. 3–36.

  70. 70.

    Yves Clot, Travail et pouvoir d’agir (Paris: PUF, 2008). See also the interviews with Yves Clot and Christophe Dejours in Sciences humaines 242 (November 2012).

  71. 71.

    Thomas Périlleux and John Cultiaux, Destins politiques de la souffrance (Paris: Érès, 2009); Blandine Barlet and Pascal Marichalar, “Suicide”, in Bevort, Jobert, Lallement and Mias, eds, Dictionnaire du travail, pp. 744–750.

  72. 72.

    Annie Thébaud-Mony, “L’impact de la précarité et de la flexibilité sur la santé des travailleurs”, Bulletin d’information du Bureau technique syndical européen pour la santé and la sécurité, 15–16 February 2001, special issue on “Le travail sans limites? Réorganiser le travail and repenser la santé des travailleurs”, p. 22. See also Annie Thébaud-Mony, Philippe Davezies, Laurent Vogel and Serge Volkoff, eds, Les risques du travail. Pour ne pas perdre sa vie à la gagner (Paris: La Découverte, 2015).

  73. 73.

    Jean-Daniel Reynaud, “Le management par les compétences: un essai d’analyse”, Sociologie du travail 43:1 (January–March 2001), pp. 7–31; Vendramin and Valenduc, L’Avenir du travail.

  74. 74.

    Mateo Alaluf, Le Temps du labeur (Brussels: Presses de l’ULB, 1986); Michèle Tallard, “Conventions collectives and qualifications”, in Dominique Méda and Francis Vennat, eds, Le Travail non qualifié (Paris, La Découverte, 2004), pp. 41–54.

  75. 75.

    Patricia Vendramin and Gérard Valenduc, “Les impacts de l’informatique sur les métiers et les compétences”, in Jacky Akoka and Isabelle Comyn-Wattiau, eds, Encyclopédie de l’informatique and des systèmes d’information (Paris: Vuibert, 2006), pp. 1612–1616; Philippe Zarifian, Objectif compétence: pour une nouvelle logique (Paris: Liaisons, 1999), and Compétences and stratégies d’entreprises (Paris: Liaisons, 2005).

  76. 76.

    Vendramin and Valenduc, “Les impacts de l’informatique”.

  77. 77.

    Ibid.

  78. 78.

    Ibid.; Yann Moulier-Boutang, Cognitive Capitalism, trans. Ed Emery (Cambridge; Malden, MA: Polity Press, 2012).

  79. 79.

    Catherine Paradeise and Yves Lichtenberger, “Compétences, compétences, compétences”, Sociologie du travail 43:1 (2001), pp. 33–48; Michel Lallement, Le Travail, une sociologie contemporaine (Paris: Gallimard, 2007); José Rose, “Travail sans qualité ou travail réputé non qualifié?”, in Méda and Vennat, eds, Le Travail non qualifié, pp. 227–241; José Rose, Qu’est-ce que le travail non qualifié? (Paris: La Dispute, 2012).

  80. 80.

    Yves Lichtenberger, “L’emploi des jeunes”, in Pierre Boisard, Daniel Cohen, Mireille Elbaum, Jean-Louis Laville, Dominique Méda et al., Le Travail, quel avenir? (Paris: Gallimard, 1997).

  81. 81.

    Béatrice Delay, Dominique Méda and Marie-Christine Bureau, “How Do Socio-Organisational Systems Support Competition or Synergies Between Age Groups?”, in Patricia Vendramin, ed., Generations at Work and Social Cohesion in Europe (Brussels: PIE-Peter Lang, 2010), pp. 129–159.

  82. 82.

    Jim Hillage, Jo Regan, Jenny Dickson and Kirsten McLoughlin, “Employers Skill Survey 2002”, UK Department for Education and Skills, Research Report 372.

  83. 83.

    Irena Grugulis and Steven Vincent, “Whose Skill Is It Anyway? ‘Soft’ Skills and Polarization”, Work Employment & Society 23:4 (December 2009), pp. 597–615.

  84. 84.

    Bernard Gazier, ed., Employability: Concepts and Policies, a report prepared for DG V of the European Commission by the Institute for Applied Socio-Economics, Berlin, 1999.

  85. 85.

    Ana Margarida Passos, Paula Castro, Sandra Carvalho and Celia Soares, “Self, Work and Career in a Changing Environment: A Portuguese Perspective”, in Vendramin, ed., Generations at Work.

  86. 86.

    Bernard Gazier, “L’employabilité”, in José Allouche, ed., Encyclopédie des ressources humaines (Paris: Vuibert, 2003), pp. 418–427; Thomas Périlleux, “Se rendre désirable. L’employabilité dans l’État social actif et l’idéologie managériale”, in Pascale Vielle, Philippe Pochet and Isabelle Cassiers, eds, L’état social actif: Vers un changement de paradigme (Brussels: Presses Inter-universitaires Européenes/Peter Lang, 2005).

  87. 87.

    Nick Wilton, “Do Employability Skills Really Matter in the UK Graduate Labour Market? The Case of Business and Management Graduates”, Work Employment & Society 25:1 (March 2011), pp. 85–100.

  88. 88.

    Lichtenberger, “L’emploi des jeunes”.

  89. 89.

    Danièle Linhart, Perte d’emploi, perte de soi (Paris: Érès, 2003).

  90. 90.

    Delay, Méda and Bureau, “How Do Socio-Organisational Systems Support Competition?”

  91. 91.

    Ursula Holtgrewe, “New ‘New Technologies’: The Future and the Present of Work in Information and Communication Technology”, New Technology, Work and Employment 29:1 (2014), pp. 9–24; Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, Race Against the Machine: How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy (Lexington, MA: Digital Frontier Press, 2011); Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, The Second Machine Age (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2014).

  92. 92.

    Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, “The Future of Employment: How Susceptible are Jobs to Computerisation?”, Oxford Martin School Working Paper, September 2013, downloadable at http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf

  93. 93.

    At the time of writing (Spring 2016) one could find on the BBC’s website an interactive module allowing one to calculate the chances of one’s job being replaced by a robot in the next 15–20 years: http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-34066941

  94. 94.

    Lilly Irani, “Justice for Data Janitors”, Public Books, 15 January 2015, downloadable at http://www.publicbooks.org/nonfiction/justice-for-data-janitors

  95. 95.

    Robert Brainard and Kym Fullgrabe, “Technology and Employment”, Science, Technology and Industry Review 1 (Fall 1986); Universität Siegen, Corvinus University of Budapest, Oxford Internet Institute, University of Twente, World Research Centre (Ireland), Study on the Social Impact of ICT, report to European Commission (SMART 2007/0068), 2010; Jean-Louis Missika, Olivier Pastré, Dominique Meyer, Jean-Louis Truel, Robert Zarader et al., Informatisation et emploi, menace ou mutation? (Paris: La Documentation Française, 1981); Luc Soete, ed., Technology, Productivity and Job Creation—Analytical Report (Paris: OECD, 1996); Ian Stewart, Debapratim De and Alex Cole, “Technology and People: The Great Job-Creating Machine”, report published by Deloitte LLP, 2015, downloadable at http://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/uk/Documents/finance/deloitte-uk-technology-and-people.pdf; Georg Graetz and Guy Michaels, “Robots at Work” (CEP Discussion Paper No 1335, London School of Economics, March 2015).

  96. 96.

    Frey and Osborne, The Future of Employment.

  97. 97.

    David H. Autor and David Dorn, “The Growth of Low Skill Service Jobs and the Polarisation of the US Labor Market”, American Economic Review 103:5 (2013), pp. 1553–1597.

  98. 98.

    Ursula Huws, “Working Online, Living Offline: Labour in the Internet age”, Work Organisation, Labour and Globalisation 7:1 (2013), pp. 1–11; World Economic Forum, The Future of Jobs: Employment, Skills and Workforce Strategy for the Fourth Industrial Revolution, 2016; UK Commission for Employment and Skills, “The Future of Work: Jobs and Skills in 2030”, Evidence Report, February 2014.

  99. 99.

    See in particular the publications of the Dynamics of Virtual Work network, “an international interdisciplinary research network on the transformation of work in the Internet Age”: http://dynamicsofvirtualwork.com

  100. 100.

    Eurofound, New Forms of Employment (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015).

  101. 101.

    This section is based on Gérard Valenduc and Patricia Vendramin, “Work in the Digital Economy: Sorting the Old from the New” (European Trade Union Institute Working Paper 2016.04).

  102. 102.

    Eurofound, New Forms of Employment.

  103. 103.

    Agnès Parent-Thirion, Greet Vermeylen, Gijs van Houten, Maija Lyly-Yrjänäinen, Isabella Biletta et al., Fifth European Working Conditions Survey: Overview Report (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2012).

  104. 104.

    Anne Green, Maria de Hoyos, Sally-Anne Barnes, Beate Baldauf and Heike Behle, CrowdEmploy Crowdsourcing Case Studies: An Empirical Investigation into the Impact of Crowdsourcing on Employability (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2013).

  105. 105.

    EU-OSHA, “A Review of the Future of Work: Online Labour Exchanges or ‘Crowdsourcing’: Implications for Occupational Safety and Health” (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work discussion paper, 2015).

  106. 106.

    Ursula Huws, The Making of a Cybertariat: Virtual Work in a Real World (New York: Monthly Review Press; London: Merlin Press, 2003).

  107. 107.

    Nicolas Colin and Henri Verdier, L’âge de la multitude – Entreprendre et gouverner après la révolution numérique (Paris: Armand Colin, 2012).

  108. 108.

    Ursula Huws, “Logged In: The New Economy Makes it Harder than Ever to Untangle Capitalism from Our Daily Lives”, at www.jacobinmag.com/2016/01/huws-sharing-economy-crowdsource-precarity-uber-workers

  109. 109.

    EU-OSHA, “A Review of the Future of Work”.

  110. 110.

    Eurofound, New Forms of Employment.

  111. 111.

    Christian Fuchs and Eran Fisher, eds, Reconsidering Value and Labour in the Digital Age (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015); Sabine Pfeiffer, “Web, Value and Labour”, Work Organisation, Labour & Globalisation 7:1 (2013), pp. 12–30.

  112. 112.

    Jan Popma, “The Janus Face of the ‘New Ways of Work’: Rise, Risks and Regulation of Nomadic Work” (ETUI Working Paper 2013.07).

  113. 113.

    Premilla D’Cruz and Ernesto Noronha, “The Interface Between Technology and Customer Cyberbullying: Evidence from India”, Information and Organization 24 (2014), pp. 176–193.

  114. 114.

    Irani, “Justice for Data Janitors”; Sarah Roberts, “Essential Practice, Hidden Labour: Understanding Commercial Content Moderation in a Globalized Context”, paper given at the “Dynamics of Virtual Work” conference, Parnü, 16–18 September, 2015.

  115. 115.

    Dominique Cardon and Antonio Casilli, Qu’est-ce que le Digital Labor? (Bry-sur-Marne: INA, 2015).

  116. 116.

    Vili Lehdonvirta and Paul Mezier, “Identity and Self-Organization in Unstructured Work” (Dynamics of Virtual Work Working Paper No. 1, 2013).

  117. 117.

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Méda, D., Vendramin, P. (2017). Expectations Frustrated by Changes in Work. In: Reinventing Work in Europe. Dynamics of Virtual Work. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39525-8_4

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