Taking the Advantage of Smartphone Apps for Understanding Information Needs of Emergency Response Teams’ for Situational Awareness: Evidence from an Indoor Fire Game

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9733)

Abstract

In search and rescue (SAR) operation, a lot of information is being shared among different emergency response groups. However, one of the key challenges experienced by these rescue groups during SAR operation is obtaining the complete awareness of the situation from the shared information. Moreover, one of the key actions of rescue leaders is to get the needed information in order to coordinate effectively with other teams and perform well. So, in this study we conduct an indoor fire drill with the help of Smartphone application with two settings (without SmartRescue smartphone application and with SmartRescue smartphone application) to find out what type of information is mostly communicated in both scenarios and needed by response teams. The presented results combine observations, qualitative and quantitative data analysis on videotaped data after the game. The results indicate that information categories which are formulated more recurrent in second scenario than first scenario. This might be explained as technology is more effective for sharing the information which is available on the smartphone application for obtaining situational awareness and for coordination.

Keywords

Information sharing Mobile HCI Emergency management tools Situational awareness Indoor fire game Smartphone applications Information needs Information categories 

References

  1. 1.
    Netten, N., et al.: Task-adaptive information distribution for dynamic collaborative emergency response. Int. J. Intell. Control Syst. 11(4), 238–247 (2006)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Endsley, M.: Theoretical underpinnings of situation awareness: a critical review. In: Endsley, M., Garland, D.J. (eds.) Situation Awareness Analysis and Measurement. Laurence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey (2000)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kuusisto, R.: From Common Operational Picture to Precision Management. In: Managemental Information Flows in Crisis Management Network. Publications of the Ministry of Transport and Communications 81/2005, Helsinki (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Toner, S.: Creating situational awareness: a systems approach. In: Altevogt, B.M., Stroud, C., Nadig, L. (eds.) Medical Surge Capacity: Workshop Summary. National Academies Press, Washington (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nunavath, V., Radianti, J., Comes, T., Prinz, A.: The impacts of ICT support on information distribution, task assignment for gaining teams’ situational awareness in search and rescue operations. In: Thampi, S.M., Bandyopadhyay, S., Krishnan, S., Li, K.-C., Mosin, S., Ma, M. (eds.) Advances in Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems. AISC, vol. 425, pp. 443–456. Springer, Heidelberg (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Seppänen, H., Mäkelä, J., Luokkala, P., Virrantaus, K.: Developing shared situational awareness for emergency management. Saf. Sci. 55, 1–9 (2013). doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2012.12.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Busby, S., Witucki-Brown, J.: Theory development for situational awareness in multi-casualty incidents. J. Emerg. Nurs. 37, 444–452 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Endsley, M.R., Jones, W.M.: A model of inter- and intrateam situation awareness: Implications for design, training and measurement. In: McNeese, M., Salas, E., Endsley, M. (eds.) New Trends in Cooperative Activities: Understanding System Dynamics in Complex Environments. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Santa Monica (2001)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nunavath, V., et al.: Visualization of information flows and exchanged information: evidence from an indoor fire game. In: The Proceedings of 12th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Management and Response (ISCRAM) (2015)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beredskap, D. f. s. o.Veiledning til forskrift om organisering og dimensjonering av brannvesen (2003)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Beredskap., D. f. s.Veiledning om røyk og kjemikaliedykking (2003)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eide, A.W., Haugstveit, I. M., Halvorsrud, R., Borén, M.: Inter-organizational collaboration structures during emergency response: a case study. In: Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 10th International ISCRAM Conference. Baden-Baden, Germany (2013)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zellowalkie-talkieapp. Zello walkie-talkie software application. http://zello.com/app
  14. 14.
    SmartRescueProject. SmartRescue project, Center for Integrated Emergency Management (CIEM). http://ciem.uia.no/project/smartrescue
  15. 15.
    Nvivo tool, software application. http://www.qsrinternational.com/product
  16. 16.
    Morse, J.M., Pooler, C.: Analysis of videotaped data: Methodological considerations. Int. J. Qual. Methods 1, 62–67 (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Braun, V., Clarke, V.: Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual. Res. Psychol. 3, 77–101 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bazeley, P., Jackson, K.: Qualitative Data Analysis with Nvivo, pp. 1–305 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ICTUniversity of Agder (UiA)GrimstadNorway

Personalised recommendations