Smiling in a Wizard of Oz Experiment: Emotional vs. Social Smiles, General Effects and Sex Differences

  • Martin KripplEmail author
  • Matthias Haase
  • Julia Krüger
  • Jörg Frommer
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9731)


Derks et al. (2008) showed the similarity of user’s emotional involvement in human-human-interaction compared to human-computer-interaction. This implies display rules and gender norms on display rules. In a Wizard of Oz Experiment users had to overcome two challenging situations, were emotions should be induced. Emotional smiles and social smiles were categorized after facial movements were coded with the Facial Action Coding System (Ekman and Friesen 1978). Emotional smiles were more frequent during one of the challenges compared to the baseline, showing that emotion induction was successful. Social smiles were more frequent at the start of the experiment compared to the challenges, but only for woman. This supports the assumption of Derks et al. (2008) that the display rule “smile at the start of on interaction” is only valid for woman. Together the results back the idea that computers are seen as human-like counterparts.


Smiling Emotional smile Social smile FACS Sex differences Display rules Gender norms 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Krippl
    • 1
    Email author
  • Matthias Haase
    • 2
  • Julia Krüger
    • 2
  • Jörg Frommer
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Psychology, Department Methodology, Psychodiagnostics and Evaluation ResearchOtto-von-Guericke University of MagdeburgMagdeburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Medical FacultyOtto-von-Guericke University MagdeburgMagdeburgGermany

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