UserX Story: Incorporating UX Aspects into User Stories Elaboration

  • Joelma ChomaEmail author
  • Luciana A. M. Zaina
  • Daniela Beraldo
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9731)


In the last decade, many strategies have been employed successfully to incorporate User Experience (UX) practices into agile development in order to increase user satisfaction with the product. In this paper, we present a grammar for stories of interaction called UserX Story, in order to remedy the difficulties encountered by teams to insert UX aspects and usability requirements in the first steps of software conception. An action research approach was applied to carry out the research within the industry, allowing us to work closely with the agile teams. The research cycle was split in three steps. In the first step, we carried out a technical literature survey, aiming to investigate the use of user stories in the agile methodologies, and additionally, an ethnographic study also was carried out in order to understand how the traditional user stories were being developed by product owners. In the second step, we proposed together with both teams - UX and agile - a grammar to UserX Story incorporating two concepts of UX: personas and Nielsen’s heuristics. In the third step, six product owners were invited to implement the UserX Stories in real projects. After that, we interviewed the participants aiming to collect their experiences with the implementation of UserX Stories. Thus, we have found out that most of the agile teams approved the use of the stories incorporating UX aspects.


Agile Scrum User experience Usability User story 


  1. 1.
    Barksdale, J., Ragan, E., McCrickard, D.: Easing Team Usability: A Concept Mapping Approach. Agile Conference. IEEE, Chicago (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brown, D.D.: Five Agile UX Myths. J. Usability Studies 8(3), 55–60 (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brown, J.M., Lindgaard, G., Biddle, R.: Collaborative events and shared artefacts: Agile interaction designers and developers working toward common aims. In: Agile Conference AGILE 2011, pp. 87−96. IEEE Computer Society, Salt Lake City (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cao, L., Ramesh, B.: Agile requirements engineering practices: an empirical study. IEEE Softw. 25(1), 60–67 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Choma, J., Zaina, L.A., Beraldo, D.: Communication of design decisions and usability issues: a protocol based on Personas and Nielsen’s heuristics. In: Kurosu, M. (ed.) Human-Computer Interaction. LNCS, vol. 9169, pp. 163–174. Springer, Heidelberg (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Choma, J., Zaina, L. A., Silva, T.S.: Towards an approach matching CMD and DSR to improve the Academia-Industry software development partnership. In: Brazilian Symposium on Software Engineering (SBES). IEEE (2015)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cohn, M.: User Stories Applied: For Agile Software Development, 13th edn. Pearson Education, Boston (2009)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cohn, M.: Succeeding with Agile: Software Development using Scrum, 2nd edn. Pearson Education, Boston (2010)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cooper, A., Reimann, R., Cronin, D.: About Face 3: The Essentials of Interaction Design. Wiley Publishing, New York (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dittrich, Y., Rönkkö, K., Eriksson, J., Hansson, C., Lindeberg, O.: Cooperative method development. Empirical Softw. Eng. 13(3), 231–260 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ferreira, J.: Agile development and UX design: towards understanding work cultures to support integration. In: Bajec, M., Eder, J. (eds.) CAiSE Workshops 2012. LNBIP, vol. 112, pp. 608–615. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Følstad, A., Law, E.L., Hornbæk, K.: Outliers in usability testing: how to treat usability problems found for only one test participant? In: Proceedings of the 7th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Making Sense Through, pp. 257−260 (2012)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fowler, M., Highsmith, J.: The Agile manifesto. Softw. Dev. 9(8), 28–35 (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hevner, A.R., March, S.T., Park, J., Ram, S.: Design science in information systems research. MIS Quart. 28(1), 75–105 (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hudson, W.: User stories don’t help users. Interactions 20, 50–53 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Inayat, I., Salim, S.S., Marczak, S., Daneva, M., Shamshirband, S.: A systematic literature review on agile requirements engineering practices and challenges. Comput. Hum. Behav. 51, 915–929 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jia, Y., Larusdottir, M.K., Cajander, Å.: The usage of usability techniques in scrum projects. In: Winckler, M., Forbrig, P., Bernhaupt, R. (eds.) HCSE 2012. LNCS, vol. 7623, pp. 331–341. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jurca, G., Hellmann, T.D., Maurer, F.: Integrating Agile and user-centered design: a systematic mapping and review of evaluation and validation studies of Agile-UX. In: Agile Conference (AGILE), pp. 24–32. IEEE, Orlando (2014)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Juristo, N., Moreno, A.M., Sanchez-Segura, M.I.: Guidelines for eliciting usability functionalities. IEEE Trans. Softw. Eng. 33(11), 744–758 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moreno, A.M., Yagüe, A.: Agile user stories enriched with usability. In: Wohlin, C. (ed.) XP 2012. LNBIP, vol. 111, pp. 168–176. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nazzaro, W., Suscheck, C.: New to user stories? (2010).
  22. 22.
    Nielsen, J.: 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design (1995).
  23. 23.
    Nielsen, J.: Agile development projects and usability (2008).
  24. 24.
    Norman, D.: Ad-hoc personas & empathetic focus. Jnd. org. (2004).
  25. 25.
    Ramesh, B., Cao, L., Baskerville, R.: Agile requirements engineering practices and challenges: an empirical study. Inf. Syst. J. 20(5), 449–480 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rodríguez, P., Yagüe, A., Alarcón, P.P., Garbajosa, J.: Some findings concerning requirements in Agile methodologies. In: Bomarius, F., Oivo, M., Jaring, P., Abrahamsson, P. (eds.) Product-Focused Software Process Improvement, pp. 171–184. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schwaber, K., Sutherland, J.: The scrum guide. Scrum Alliance (2011)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Seffah, A., Gulliksen, J., Desmarais, M.C.: Human-Centered Software Engineering - Integrating Usability in the Software Development Lifecycle, vol. 8. Springer, Netherlands (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sohaib, O., Khan, K.: Incorporating discount usability in extreme programming. Int. J. Softw. Eng. Appl. 5, 51–62 (2011)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sy, D.: Adapting usability investigations for Agile user-centered design. J. Usability Stud. 2, 112–132 (2007)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joelma Choma
    • 1
    Email author
  • Luciana A. M. Zaina
    • 1
  • Daniela Beraldo
    • 1
  1. 1.Federal University of São CarlosSão PaulBrazil

Personalised recommendations