Skip to main content

Fungal Infections of the Hair

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Antibiotic and Antifungal Therapies in Dermatology
  • 1116 Accesses

Abstract

Tinea capitis or scalp ringworm is an infection of the scalp hair caused by dermatophyte fungi. Only certain species appear to have the physiological capacity to invade hair shafts, and one, Trichophyton schoenleinii, invades to cause the disease known as favus but does not survive for long within the hair shaft keratin. Conversely, dermatophytes causing tinea capitis can also invade the skin of other sites, mainly the body or the face [1, 2]. Other dermatophyte infections are discussed in Chapter.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

eBook
USD 16.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 119.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Elewski B. Tinea capitis: a current perspective. Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42:1–20.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Hay RJ, Ashbee R. Mycology. In: Champion RH, Burton JL, Burns DA, Breathnach SM, editors. Textbook of dermatology. 6th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science; 2005. p. 1277–376.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Mirmirani P, Tucker LY. Epidemiologic trends in pediatric tinea capitis: a population-based study from Kaiser Permanente Northern California. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2013.08.031. pii: S0190-9622(13)00905-5.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Timen A, Bovee L, Leentvaar-Kuijpers A, Peerbooms PG, Coutinho RA. Tinea capitis in primary school age children in southeastern Amsterdam: primarily due to Trichophyton tonsurans. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 1999;143:24–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Pomeranz AJ, Sabnis SS, McGrath GJ, Esterly NB. Asymptomatic dermatophyte carriers in the households of children with tinea capitis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153:483–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Verhagen AR. Distribution of dermatophytes causing tinea capitis in Africa. Trop Geograph Med. 1978;26:101–20.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Aly R. Ecology and epidemiology of dermatophyte infections. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;31:S21–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Abdel-Rahman SM, Preuett BL. Genetic predictors of susceptibility to cutaneous fungal infections: a pilot genome wide association study to refine a candidate gene search. J Dermatol Sci. 2012;67:147–52.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Tack DA, Fleischer Jr A, McMichael A, Feldman S. The epidemic of tinea capitis disproportionately affects school-aged African Americans. Pediatr Dermatol. 1999;16:75–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Wilmington M, Aly R, Frieden IJ. Trichophyton tonsurans tinea capitis in the San Francisco Bay area: increased infection demonstrated in a 20-year survey of fungal infections from 1974 to 1994. J Med Vet Mycol. 1996;34:285–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Hay RJ, Clayton YM, De Silva N, Midgley G, Rossor E. Tinea capitis in south-east London – a new pattern of infection with public health implications. Br J Dermatol. 1996;135:955–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Brasch J. Current knowledge of host response in human tinea. Mycoses. 2009;52:304–12.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Grumbt M, Monod M, Staib P. Genetic advances in dermatophytes. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2011;320:79–86.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Grumbt M, Monod M, Yamada T, Hertweck C, Kunert J, Staib P. Keratin degradation by dermatophytes relies on cysteine dioxygenase and a sulfite efflux pump. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:1550–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Child FJ, Fuller LC, Higgins EM, Du Vivier AW. A study of the spectrum of skin disease occurring in a black population in south-east London. Br J Dermatol. 1999;141:512–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Figueroa JI, Hawranek T, Abraha A, Hay RJ. Tinea capitis in south-western Ethiopia: a study of risk factors for infection and carriage. Int J Dermatol. 1997;36:661–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Hubbard TW. The predictive value of symptoms in diagnosing childhood tinea capitis. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153:1150–3.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. MacKenzie DWR. “Hairbrush diagnosis” in detection and eradication of non-fluorescent scalp ringworm. Br Med J. 1963;ii:363–5.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Hay RJ. Tinea capitis. London: Mosby Wolfe; 1999.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Brillowska-Dabrowska A, Michałek E, Saunte DM, Nielsen SS, Arendrup MC. PCR test for Microsporum canis identification. Med Mycol. 2013;51:576–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Wright S, Robertson VJ. An institutional survey of tinea capitis in Harare, Zimbabwe and a trial of miconazole cream versus Whitfield’s ointment in its treatment. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1986;11:371–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Michaels BD, Del Rosso JQ. Tinea capitis in infants: recognition, evaluation, and management suggestions. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012;5:49–59.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Caceres-Rios H, Rueda M, Ballona R, Bustamante B. Comparison of terbinafine and griseofulvin in the treatment of tinea capitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000;42:80–4.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Gupta AK, Drummond-Main C. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing particular doses of griseofulvin and terbinafine for the treatment of tinea capitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013;30:1–6.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Beghin D, Vanbreuseghem R. Traitment des dermatophyties du cuir chevelu par une dose unique de griseofulvine; essai d’une dose reduite. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop. 1974;54:477–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Kullavanijaya P, Reangchainam S, Ungpakorn R. Randomized single-blind study of efficacy and tolerability of terbinafine in the treatment of tinea capitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;37:272–3.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Haroon TS, Hussain I, Aman S. A randomised double-blind comparative study of terbinafine for 1, 2 and 4 weeks in tinea capitis. Br J Dermatol. 1996;135:86–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Fleece D, Gaughan JP, Aronoff SC. Griseofulvin versus terbinafine in the treatment of tinea capitis: a meta-analysis of randomized, clinical trials. Pediatrics. 2004;114:1312–5.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Dragos V, Lunder M. Lack of efficacy of 6 week treatment with oral terbinafine for tinea capitis due to Microsporum canis in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 1997;14:46–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Devliotou-Panagiotidou D, Koussidou-Eremondi TH. Efficacy and tolerability of 8 weeks’ treatment with terbinafine in children with tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis: a comparison of three doses. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004;18:155–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Mock M, Monod M, Baudraz-Rosselet F, Panizzon RG. Tinea capitis, dermatophytes: susceptibility to antifungal drugs tested in vitro and in vivo. Dermatology. 1998;197:361–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Lopez Gomez S, Del Palacio A, Van Cutsem J, Cuetara MS, Iglesias L, Rodriguez-Noriega A. Itraconazole versus griseofulvin in the treatment of tinea capitis. A double blind randomised study in children. Int J Dermatol. 1994;33:743–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Abdel-Rahman SM, Powell DA, Nahata MC. Efficacy of itraconazole in children with Trichophyton tonsurans with tinea capitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:443–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Ginter-Hanselmayer G, Smolle J, Gupta A. Itraconazole in the treatment of tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis: experience in a large cohort. Pediatr Dermatol. 2004;21:499–502.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Gupta AK, Alexis ME, Raboobee N. Itraconazole pulse therapy is effective in the treatment of tinea capitis in children: an open multicentre study. Br J Dermatol. 1997;137:251–4.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Solomon BA, Collins R, Sharma R, Silverberg N, Jain AR, Sedgh J, Laude TA. Fluconazole for the treatment of tinea capitis in children. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1997;37:274–5.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Mercurio MG, Silverman RA, Elewski BE. Tinea capitis: fluconazole in Trichophyton tonsurans infections. Pediatr Dermatol. 1998;37:274–5.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Gupta AK, Adam P, Hofstader SL, Lynde CW, Taborda P, Taborda V, Morar N, Dlova N, Raboobee N, Konnikov N, Aboobaker J, Summerbell RC. Intermittent short duration therapy with fluconazole is effective for tinea capitis. Br J Dermatol. 1999;141:304–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Dastghaib L, Azizzadeh M, Jafari P. Therapeutic options for the treatment of tinea capitis: griseofulvin versus fluconazole. J Dermatol Treat. 2005;16:43–6.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Shemer A, Plotnik IB, Davidovici B, et al. Treatment of tinea capitis – griseofulvin versus fluconazole – a comparative study. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2013;11:737–42.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. McGinley KJ, Leyden JJ. Antifungal activity of dermatological shampoos. Arch Dermatol Res. 1982;272:339–42.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Allen HB, Honig PJ, Leyden JJ, McGinley KJ. Selenium sulfide: adjunctive therapy for tinea capitis. Pediatrics. 1982;69:81–3.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Greer DL. Successful treatment of tinea capitis with 2% ketoconazole shampoo. Int J Dermatol. 2000;39:302–4.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Hussain I, Muzaffar F, Rashid T, Ahmad TJ, Jahangir M, Haroon TS. A randomized, comparative trial of treatment of kerion celsi with griseofulvin plus oral prednisolone vs. griseofulvin alone. Med Mycol. 1999;37:97–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Roderick J. Hay DM, FRCP .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2016 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Hay, R.J. (2016). Fungal Infections of the Hair. In: Ólafsson, J., Hay, R. (eds) Antibiotic and Antifungal Therapies in Dermatology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39424-4_9

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39424-4_9

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-39422-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-39424-4

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics