Modeling and Worked Examples in Game-Based Learning

  • Pieter WoutersEmail author
Part of the Advances in Game-Based Learning book series (AGBL)


This chapter discusses the role of modeling and worked examples in game-based learning. These instruction techniques can support students to focus on relevant information and to engage in a deeper level of processing (organizing new knowledge and integrate this with prior knowledge) without endangering the motivational appeal of computer games. In addition, it can help to connect informal knowledge representations acquired in the game with the formal domain knowledge representations. Four instructional aspects with respect to modeling and worked examples are discerned: timing (when is the model presented), level of completeness (models can be complete or incomplete), duration (modeling can be faded out or not), and modality (is the model presented in text, pictorial, or both). The results of the review indicate that the use of modeling and worked examples improves learning (d = .61), in particular when it is used to support domain-specific skills, but that little is known about the moderating effect of the four instructional aspects. In addition, it is not clear how modeling and worked examples influence motivation in serious games (d = .01). With respect to both issues more research is required.


Modeling Worked examples Learning Motivation Review 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Utrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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